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    The Inuit people have been given life from the lands they have inhabited for thousands of years. It has served Inuit in every aspect of life and the very land itself has been named from Nuna “the land”. For all its harshness and unforgiving elements it has still provided everything from which to live. Shelter, warmth and drinking water come from snow, the land provides wildlife and berries, while the waters of the lakes, rivers and the ocean provides the greatest bounty of all. This great bounty provides food and furs, as well as the source for tools and oil to make the light and heat for the Qulliq. As the people moved outward and adapted to the land around them they learned to read all the signs it provided to them to find their way to great hunting and fishing areas and always lead them home. The following "Timeline of Inuit Social History" and Maureen's years of research, we present this timeline under her permission via the websites creative common license. Thank you Maureen Flynn-Burhoe for this great timeline. Timeline of Inuit Social History As I track Speechless statistics I noticed a growing interest in content collected as background to my graduate studies on the role of memory work and the historical and ethical components of stories told about Inuit, that I had uploaded to Web 2.0 sites through the Creative Commons License 3.0. I will slowly update and maintain if interest continues. This was developed as complementary material to my teaching, learning and research and is not intended as a comprehensive timeline. Speechless has been visited c. 250 times a day over the last week with a total of 75,000 visits (2008-06). 9000 BC Ice Age came to an end. Arctic climate warmed. 7000 BC Dogsleds used by Palaeo-Eskimo in northern Siberia? 3000 BC The Denbigh culture of western and northern Alaska dates as far back 2500 BC Migration Theory: Paleao-Eskimos migrating across Arctic North America. (in McGhee, Robert) 2200 – 1500 BC Stable northern climate. 2000 BC Umingmak Palaeo-Eskimo site on Banks Island. c.1700 BC Oldest known Early Palaeo-Eskimo portrait of a human, an ivory maskette found on Devon Island. 1800 BC Palaeo-Eskimos occupied most Arctic regions. Independence culture musk-ox hunters of the extreme Arctic regions. 2000 BC – 1 AD Worldwide environmental change. In the north: the first chill. Cooler summers. 2000 BC Cooler conditions set in North. 500 – 1 BC Early Dorset Tyara maskette found at Hudson Strait. 1 – 1500 Dorset culture. 1 – 600 AD Middle Dorset culture: Igloolik flying bear carving. 500s AD Legend: Irish monks in currachs sailed west and north? 800s AD Eric the Red and 1500 Icelanders travelled to Greenland’s southwest coast? The Norse landed in Labrador before 1000 AD and attempted to colonize along the coasts of Ungava, Baffin Island and Labrador. They were the first Europeans to reach the Canadian Arctic. (Hessell 1998:7) ) 650 – 1250 AD Mediaeval Warm Period in Arctic North America.(McGhee 1997). 600 – 1300 AD Late Dorset culture, wand found on Bathurst Island. 1100 – 1700 AD Thule culture: bow-drill handle found near Arctic Bay, Baffin Island; swimming bird and birdwoman figurines found in the Eastern Arctic. (Illustration Hessel 1998:17) c.1650 – 1840 AD Little Ice Age forced the Thule to break up into small, nomadic groups. 1576 ?Martin Frobisher, an uneducated pirate-mariner attempted to find the Northwest Passage. He encountered Inuit on Resolution Island. Five sailors jumped ship and became part of Inuit mythology. The homesick sailors tired of their adventure attempted to leave in a small vessel and vanished. Frobisher brought an unwilling Inuk to England. On his next trip to Baffin Island an Inuit hunter shot Frobisher in the buttocks with an arrow after Frobisher had lost a wrestling match? 1585 John Davis voyaged up Davis Strait. 1602 Henry Hudson travelled to the whaling grounds of Spitsbergen which became a source of great wealth to the British. 1616 Robert Bylot and William Baffin sailed to Hudson Bay. 1670 Hudson’s Bay Company newly formed is granted trade rights over all territory draining into Hudson Bay. The fur trade develops. 1749 The first trading was established at Richmond Gulf. c. 1749 Trade of small stone carvings. The HBC began trading glass beads to the Caribou Inuit in the 18th century. Women used them to decorate parkas. Ivory cribbage boards with skrimshaw engravings (like the whalers) ere the most popular. (Hessel 1998:24) 1750s Moravian missionaries arrived in Labrador. (Hessell 1998:8) 1771 Moravian missionaries settled in Nain in northern Labrador heralding the beginning of the Historic Period. Well-crafted miniature carvings were traded with missionaries, whalers, explorers… 1770s – 1940s. The missionaries are said to have introduced the art of basketry to the Inuit (Watt 1980:13). 1771 Samuel Hearne of the HBC reached the Arctic coast at Coppermine. 1789 Alexander Mackenzie follows Mackenzie River to Beaufort Sea. 1880 British Crown transferred many of the Arctic Islands to Canada. These islands became part of the Territories. (Parker 1996:23) 1820. The “Hudson’s Bay Company opened a trading post called Great Whale River in 1820 on the site of today’s Kuujjuarapik. The main activities at the post were processing whale products of the commercial whale hunt and trading furs.” www 1821-3. D’Anglure (2002:205) stated that the British Naval Expedition (1821-3) led by Admiral Parry, which twice over-wintered in Foxe Basin, provided the first informed, sympathetic and well-documented account of the economic, social and religious life of the Inuit. Parry stayed in Igloolik over the second winter. Parry’s writings with pen and ink illustrations of Inuit everyday life (1824) and those of Lyon (1824) were widely read. 1822 William Parry’s expedition to Igloolik. 183? Captain George Back made the first descent of the Back River. 1830s – 1860s. A man named (Jimmy?) Fleming (b. 1830s?1860s?) remained behind when the whaling ship left the north. He was given an Inuktitut name and he married an Inuk. Jimmy Fleming was a traveler; Jimmy Fleming was Scottish or English more likely Scottish perhaps with prominent eyebrows like Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming. His son was Jimmy Ekoomiak Fleming (c.1865-1950s), Sarah Ekoomiak’s grandfather. Annie Weetaltuk, Johnny Weetaltuk’s cousin knew the story about the man called Fleming and she told William Ekomiak the story. 1850s – 1950s Christian missionaries spread throughout Arctic. 1860 – 1915 Second wave of contact. Whaling in Hudson Bay with foreign whalers: Scottish, American particularly in the Roes Welcome Sound. 1856 Two Anglican Church Missionary Society members working in the Hudsons’ Bay region, John Horden, at Moose Factory, and E. A. Watkins at Fort George, were producing material in syllabics for Inuit. Watkins noted in his diary of June 19, 1856, that an Inuit youth from Little Whale River wanted to learn syllabics very much so he worked with Watkins. Horden in Moose Factory and Watkins collaborated on producing some Bible selections in Inuktitut. Re: Sarah Ekoomiak’s story. 1861 Edward Belcher wrote an paper entitled ‘On the manufacture of works of art by the Esquimaux’ which is archived in the Department of Ethnography in the British Museum in London. See J. King Franks and Ethnography. This may be the first paper written on Inuit art., London, Department of Ethnography in the British Museum. 1865 Pangnirtung has a long history associated with Scottish and American whaling. Whale oil made from animal fat was used as fuel. In 1865? petroleum was developed as fuel, replacing whale oil. Whaling had become became the largest industry in North America, with 20,000 American seamen out in a single whale-hunting from “… New England. P.(Houston, James. 1996:151). 1865 John Horden and Watkins met in London worked together to modify the Cree syllabic system to the Inuktitut language. The syllabic orthography was very easy to learn that and this enabled the Anglican Church to proselytize successfully over such a wide area of the Arctic. Inuit taught each other. With the assistance of well-travelled native assistants who worked with Peck, Bilby and Greenshield at Blacklead Island, and with Bilby and Fleming at Lake Harbour, a large number of Inuit who had never met a missionary nonetheless had access to the Bible and were able to read it in syllabics. Two of the best-known native assistants were Luke Kidlapik and Joseph Pudloo. As a boy Joseph Pudloo had learned syllabics in Reverend Fleming’ s senior class in Lake Harbour. Later he became Fleming’s sled driver, taking the missionary thousands of miles on visits to Inuit camps. After that he spent two years working with the Reverend B.P. Smith at Baker Lake, the first native assistant to work in a dialect markedly different from his own. 1865 Rawlings, Thomas The Confederation of the British North American Provinces; Their Past History and Future Prospects; Including Also British Columbia & Hudson’s Bay Territory; With a Map, and Suggestions in Reference to the True and Only Practicable Route from the Atlantic London Sampson Low, Son, and Marston 1865, first edition, octavo, xii, [1] -244 pp., 4 plates, large folding map, original flexible cloth covered boards, covers detached but present, scattered light foxing to text, else a good, clean copy. Early efforts of the explorer, geographer and navigator, Hudson’s Bay Co., the fur trade, Red River Settlement, Rocky Mountains, discovery of gold, railroads, etc. The plates include two early views of Victoria, British Columbia, one of St. Paul, Minnesota and a farm scene. Eberstadt 133:851; Decker-Soliday IV:483; Lande 1408; TPL 4442; Peel 206; Sabin 68006 1873 North-West Mounted Police. 1876 Reverend Peck established the first permanent Christian mission in Inuit territory at Little Whale River near Richmond Gulf. 1880 British Crown transferred many of the Arctic Islands to Canada. These islands became part of the Territories. (Parker 1996:23) 1880 The Indian Affairs Department was established. “Since Confederation, the responsibility for Indian Affairs and Northern Development rested with various government departments between 1873 and 1966. The minister of the Interior also held the position of Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs after the Indian Affairs Department was established in 1880.” 1880s – Whalers from San Francisco and Seattle whaled in the Beauford Sea. They wintered at Herschel Island. (Parker 1996:22) American whalers hunted in eastern Arctic. Greelandic Inuit hunted on Ellesmere Island (Tester 1993:14). 1882 An Anglican mission was established in Kujjuarapik in 1882 and a Catholic mission in 1890. 1883 Regina was named as capital of the Northwest Territories. The railway reached Regina. (Parker 1996:23) 1883-4 Anthropologist Franz Boas, studies Inuit culture, Cumberland Sound, Baffin Island. 1884 Reverend Peck established a mission at Fort Chimo, Kuujuak, to help Reverend Sam Stewart who established the second mission in Inuit territory. 1885? Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming (c.1885-1950s) was born? He died when he was 65? He became a Christian. He was not tall. Jimmie Ekoomiak loved children. He played with Sarah like a child would play. Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming was a fiddler and he taught his sons Charlie and Thomas. Thomas bought the fiddle from Eaton’s catalogue for $15. His father, a traveller, Jimmy Fleming (b. 1830s?1860s?) was Scottish or English more likely Scottish perhaps with prominent eyebrows like Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming. 1887-1905 Frederick Haultain, a Conservative, was premier of the Northwest Territories. Sir Wilfred Laurier was Prime Minister. Haultain was born in England and came to Canada when he was three. He discouraged party politics and believed in consensus (Parker 1996:25). 1888 The first Legislative Aseembly was held with 22 elected members. Arguments started over the control of the public purse. The Federal Government held the Advisory Council responsible for governmental expenditures without giving them full control over taxation and financial transfers. (Parker 1996:24), 1890s, early 1900s. The catechist Reverend Fleming traveled thousands of miles with Joseph Pudloo visiting Inuit camps, teaching syllabics along with their missionary work for the Anglican Church Missionary Society. 1893 Franz Boas’ went to Baffin Island and Northern British Columbia to gather ethnographic material for the 1893 Smithsonian’s World’s Columbian Exposition. There was an ethnographic exhibit including “Esquimaux snapping whips and in their kayaks…” 1896? Reverend Edmund Peck introduced syllabics as a written form of Inuktitut. His system was adapted from Reverend Evan’s syllabic system adopted by the Cree. 1898 Yukon was created as separate territory. Gold was discovered. (Parker 1996:25). 1900 Scottish mine owners open a mica and graphite mine near Lake Harbour and employed Inuit miners. 1901 Film clip of Inuit games and dogsleds performing at the Buffalo Exposition. 1902 A whaling ship captain, Comer purchased Igloolik Qingailisaq’s shaman’s coat. A photo of a replica of the coat illustrates the publication accompanying the film Atanarjuat. D’Anglure described Qingailisaq’s coat as the “most superbly decorated shaman’s coat.” “It is a woman’s coat, a replica of the one worn by an ijiraq female spirit that he encountered while hunting caribou in the back country. She became one of his helping spirits and he wore the coat to honour her. Its appearance calls to mind certain aspects of his encounter with the female spirit.” This coat is now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York (2002:217). 1903 Northwest Mounted Police (RCMP) detachments set up in Canadian Arctic. 1903-6 Roald Amundsen completes Northwest Passage? 1904? The artist remembered the names of many of the people involved. Joe Talirunili (1899-1976) from Povungnituk made numerous carvings and drawings referring to this migration. One of the drawings (c.1960-70) illustrated and described in Blodgett’s exhibition catalogue 1983:208) entitled “The People Takatak, Kinuajuak and Kanavalik includes a text which reads, “The people Takatak, Kinuajuak and Kanavalik on land were wondering if the canoe was carrying white people or Indians. They were scared because they never expected a boat in July. They thought they were near death when they heard someone shouting to them from the boat. This is what they heard: ‘We’re Eskimo, we’re not Indians or white people. We were caught in the ice but this is the first time we have seen land in a long time.’ Woman shouting is Aula (Myers, Joe Talirunili: 50). “Blodgett 1983) described the incident third hand, “According to Johnny Pov in the memories of Joe (Myers p.6), several travelling Inuit families became stranded on an ice pan after it broke away from the coast. Blown out to sea as the ice pan began to break into smaller and smaller pieces, the travellers, using the wood from their sleds and skins they had with them, made a makeshift umiak to carry them over the water back to the mainland. Crowded into their boat, the people, the young Joe in his mother’s parka among them, finally reached safety. In later life, when carving teh episode from his childhood, Talirunili could remember the names of all the people on the boat. 1905 Atagutaaluk survived starvation in 1905 near Pond Inlet. The shaman Palluq and his wife Tagurnaaq and Atuat from Igloolik and Repulse Bay found her near Tariuju, closer to Mittimatalik. (See Rose Iqallijuq 1998) who also described another case of survival cannibalism by Kaagat who was found near Igluligaaijuk.) Later Atagutaaluk married the shaman chief Ittuksarjuat. They lived in a qarmaq, a sod or stone house (D’Anglure 2002:222). Ittuksarjuat died in. See also 1950 Rousseliere, Guy Mary. 1950. “Monica Ataguttaaluk, Queen of Iglulik.” Eskimo 16:13. “Ujarak: My sister Atuat knows this person. She knows the story very well. My sister [Atuat] was the adopted daughter of Palluq and [his wife] Tagurnaaq. Tagurnaaq and her husband could not have a baby of their own, so they adopted Atuat. My sister Atuat, who is also called IttukuSuk, was very young at that time, but she was aware of everything that happened. The family, Palluq, Tagurnaaq and Atuat were on their way to Mittimatalik when they found Ataguttaaluk. The family brought Ataguttaaluk to where there were other people and stayed there for some time. Then they set out to the Kivalliq area and stayed there for quite a while (Iqallijuq, Rose and Johanasi Ujarak 1998).” The Igloolik shaman Atuat died in Arctic Bay in 1976. She was the daughter of Ava and Urulu. According to d’Anglure (2002) Atuat was the last Inuit to have extensive tatoos (2002:220). Atuat did a drawing in Arctic Bay in 1964 “depicting the last major winter-solstice celebration (Tivaajut) which she attended circa 1910 at Igloolik. At the end of the festivities, shamans paired everyone up into new couples for one night (d’Anglure 2002:219).” See illustration in the 2002 publication which accompanies the film Atanarjuat. According to d’Anglure in the early 1920s there were eighty shamans in the greater Igloolik area which included North Baffin to Repulse Bay region. This included fourteen women. By the 1940s all had converted to Christianity. Thirty were still alive in the 1970s. Today their names are alive through their children (d’Anglure 2002:209). [I taught one of the descendents Tabitha Palluq through CITP. Her reaction to the showing of the film starvation was very moving.] Knud Rasmussen photographed shamans in 1921-2 expedition including Urulu, Atuat’s mother, a woman shaman from the area of Igloolik/Repulse Bayand three shaman brothers from Igloolik/Repulse Bay Ivaluarjuak, Ava and Pilaskapsi. See d’Anglure (2002:211). 1905 Invention of plastic marks the end of the exploitation of the baleen whale by American and European whalers. The declining market for whale oil and baleen led to the aggressive development of the white fox fur trade by the HBC. 1905 D’Anglure (2002) described a photo of a flight of the shaman séance in 1905 among the Avilik people. The Avilik lived next to the Igloolik Inuit. “The shaman is tied from head to feet (as at the beginning of the legend of Atanarjuat) and gets ready to send his soul travelling (2002:212).” See also (Iqallijuq NAC 1998) “Iqallijuq: The first time he performed ilimmaqtuqtuq I did not hear why this was being done. The following year, I saw him ilimmaqtuqtuq again. We were living in Salliq. Aullannaaq and some other men had gone to Igluligaarjuk. They were overdue and we were starting to wonder if they were on their way back or if they had gotten lost. Makkik performed ilimmaqtuqtuq to find out how they were. He saw them from above. He told us the whole story after his retum. The group was ready to cross through at Aivilik to return to the island. No one was sick in the group and they were all alive and well, he said. The first time I saw this I was really too young to understand what was going on. I don’t recall where he had gone or what news the angakkuq had brought back.” 1905 Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick White of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police was named Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. He made decisions unilaterally. He never once called together the Territorial Council. (Parker 1996:26), 1906 According to Rose Iqallijuq an Inuk and his wife survived starvation through cannibalism but only confessed when confronted by a shaman. Kaagat, who is buried at Iglulik Point, lived for a long time. (Iqallijuq 1998). 1906 The Canadian Handicrafts Guild was founded. This national organisation had its headquarters in Montreal. 1909 Admiral Robert Peary and Matthew … reach North Pole. 1909 Reveillon Freres, Paris established a fur trading post at Inukjuak. The HBC arrived in 1920. The HBC purchased the Reveillon Freres in 1930s. 1909 Anglican mission established at Lake Harbour. 1911 First permanent trading post in south Baffin was at Lake Harbour, in Keewatin it was at Chesterfield Inlet. 1912 Burland (1973:92) referred to a famous event which took place in 1912 about an overcrowded whale boat. Burland makes constant errors so she is unreliable as a source. 1912 The boundaries of the Northwest Territories were set at the boundaries in existence in 1992. (Parker 1996:26), 1912 The northern boundary of Manitoba was extended to the 60th parallel. (Parker 1996:26), 1912 Quebec was expanded to include Arctic Quebec. (Parker 1996:26), 1913 Cape Dorset’s trading post was established. 1913 -1918 Canadian Arctic Expedition: Vilhjalmur Stefansson and Diamond Jenness. 1913 Edward Beauclerk Maurice (1913-2003) was born September 10th or 16th? In Claredon, Somerset 1914 Charlie Ekomiak 1914-1960s?) was born. He was the father of Sarah Ekoomiak (b.1933), Annie (b.1935), Maggie (b.1937), Sam (b.1939), Emily (b.1941), William Ekomiak (b.1943) Charlie Ekomiak married Lucie Menarik when he was 18 years old c. 1932. After Lucie Menarik died in 1944 Charlie remarried. Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming was a fiddler and he taught his sons Charlie and Thomas. Thomas bought the fiddle from Eaton’s catalogue for $15., 1916 – 1926 HBC operated a trading post at Okpiktooyuk near present day Baker Lake. 1918 Oil discovered at Norman Wells (Parker 1996:26). 1919 W.W. Cory became Commissioner of the Northwest Territories (Parker 1996:26), 1920s early According to d’Anglure in the early 1920s there were eighty shamans in the greater Igloolik area which included North Baffin to Repulse Bay region. This included fourteen women. By the 1940s all had converted to Christianity. Thirty were still alive in the 1970s. Today their names are alive through their children (d’Anglure 2002:209). 1921 Federal government appointed a Territorial Council of six members. (Parker 1996:26), 1921 – 1924. Danish explorer, Rasmussen’s Fifth Thule Expedition was undertaken crossing the Canadian Arctic much of it in dogsled. For some remote groups of Inuit, like the Utkuhikhalingmiut, he represented the first white contact. Listen to CBC radio interview with Mame Jackson to hear the voice of Jessie Oonark describing this encounter when she was in her teens. Along the way Rasmussen photographed Urulu, a woman shaman from the area of Igloolik/Repulse Bay. He also photographed and worked with three shaman brothers from Igloolik/Repulse Bay Ivaluarjuak, Ava and Pilaskapsi. See d’Anglure (2002:211). 1921-4 Knud Rasmussen photographed Urulu, a woman shaman from the area of Igloolik/Repulse Bay. He also photographed and worked with three shaman brothers from Igloolik/Repulse Bay Ivaluarjuak, Ava and Pilaskapsi. See d’Anglure (2002:211). 1922 Robert Flaherty’s Nanook of the North (1922) was the first documentary film ever made. In it Nanook a respected Inuk hunter demonstrated techniques of the seal (nasiq) hunt while joking with the camera crew. 1923. Mariano Aupilardjuk was born. He grew up near Nattiligaarjuk, Committee Bay where there was lots of ‘old ice’ and therefore Qallupilluq (Ernerk 1996)] Nunavut’s commissioner, Peter Irniq, has a special respect for Aupilarduk, because their families lived together in an outpost camp near Repulse Bay when Irniq was a child (Rideout 2001a). Mariano Aupiliardjuk was honoured with an Aboriginal Achievement Award in 2001 for his contributions as a bridge between generations, Inuit governance, local residents, on how to use IQ in modern society. In local Rankin Inlet elementary and secondary schools, at NAC, across Canada, advises RCMP, facilitates community and pan-territorial healing, works with youth to help them acquire land skills. 1924 Anthropologist Diamond Jenness received tiny ivory artifacts from Cape Dorset area. With this archaeological evidence the existence of the Dorset culture (800 BC – ) was established. c. 1924. Amendment to Indian Act (14-15 Geo. V Chap. 47) bringing Eskimos under the responsibility of the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs. 1924. Government interested in buying totems. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (of England) requested the preservation of totem poles in British Columbia. In a response letter to Doyle, Chas Stewart of the Dept. of Indian Affairs wrote that “.the Government has been commissioned to take up the matter, perhaps to buy out the totem poles in the Skeena River.” File number: Public Archives Indian Affairs. (RG10, Volume 4086 file 507,787-2). 1926 – 1927 Anglican and Catholic Missions open in Baker Lake. 1926. Thirteen Inuit starved to death at an outpost camp in Admiralty Inlet (Tester 1993:21). 1929. Pitchblende was discovered at Port Radium on the Great Bear Lake. Gilbert Labine began working his mine in 1930. This was the first major mining activity in the Northwest Territories. It produced radium and then uranium. (Parker 1996:26). 1930s. Americans were self-consciously constructing their identity as separate from Europe (Leclerc 1992:36-8). 1930s. Reverend Nelson was the minister in the area before the minister came who taught Jimmie Fleming. 1930s-1960s. “The use of the term ‘colony’ may sound odd, but it originated with civil servants who entered public service in the 1930s and felt they were doing work similar to the pioneering on the prairies of the nineteenth century. The term disappeared when they retired in the 1960s. See Tester and Kulchyski, Tammarniit (cited in note 134), p. 186. RCAP” ” Tester and Kulchyski, Tammarniit (cited in note 134), p. 111. The authors also caution that the term experiment must be seen in the context of the administrative culture of the day. The civil servants involved in northern administration considered that they were opening up the North in a manner parallel to what had happened on the Prairies following Confederation— (p. 119). Experiment, at least in this context, had noble rather than sinister connotations.” RCAP. 1930s Poor hunting years in the North led to deprivation among the Inuit. (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:11). Period of transition between the whaling period and the advent of trading posts. 1930 Bears teeth used as counters. 1930? Maurice was inspired to join the Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson’s Bay Company when the Archbishop of the Arctic visited his school. 1930 On April 7 Edward Beauclerk Maurice, a sixteen and a half year old teenager went to Pulteney House, on Pulteney Road, a large, elegant Victorian house set in its own picturesque south facing gardens, overlooking Bath Abbey, Bath in Somerset county. He was there to sign a contract with the Governor and Company of the Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson’s Bay Company. George Binney was the representative of the Company. The signing of the contract was witnessed by Laura Clifford and Mr. Belmont. 1930 Edward Beauclerk Maurice arrived in Montreal on his way to the Arctic. England Pangnirtung. 1930 Canadian Handicrafts Guild organized an exhibition of Eskimo Arts and Crafts at the McCord Museum in Montreal. The exhibition attracted the attention of the New York Times. (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:11) 1931. The “first Catholic mission was established by Father E. Bazin at Avvajja, three kilometres north of Igloolik, in a qarmaq. The great shaman Ituksarjuat and his wife Ataguttaaluk, the last great isumataq (traditional leaders) of Igloolik (Atanarjuat 2002:7).” 1931. Hugh Rowatt was appointed as Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. There were budget cuts due to the Depression. (Parker 1996:28). 1931. Ittuksarjuat converted to Catholicism. He asked to be buried alone on a small island near Igloolik. Ittuksarjuat requested that Inuit “abandon the winter camp of Avvajjaq where bad spirits caused his illness (D’Anglure Atanarjuat 2002:226).” 1932. Ste Therese hospital was built in Chesterfield Inlet in 1932. Source Alexina Kublu Inuit Studies, Nunavut Arctic College. 1933. Sarah Ekoomiak was born in Richmond Gulf on the coast, not far from Kuujjuarapik, Hudson’s Bay. She was the oldest of six children who were born of Charlie Ekomiak and Lucy Menark in the camp of paternal grandfather Jimmie Ekomiak (Fleming) and his wife Annie (name?). Annie was small. The name was supposed to be umiak. Jimmie Ekoomiak Fleming was calling out Umiak! Umiak! So they gave him the name Umiak. Jimmie Ekoomiak died and was buried in Moose Factory cemetery. He was there in 1950s. William Menarick (Willie’s grandfather from his mother’s side). Menarick means smooth. William Menarick is the father of Simon, Caroline (b. strong woman, hunter who walked with a limp, liked Sarah, didn’t want her to get married). 1933-44. In Sarah Ekoomiak’s early childhood years before her mother’s premature death in 1944, her family lived on the land. Her grandfather Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming was camp leader. Grandfather Ekomiak was very skilled. He used to make cord from seal skin with a special knife with a curved blade. He made this cord for the dogsleds. Her father Charlie Ekomiak knew how to do this too. Her grandfather knew how to make fish nets. They fished using nets from canoes in rivers, lakes and James Bay all year round. It was a long net with buoys, a piece of a floating wood. They caught white fish and trout and cod, small fish called Kanayuk (sculpin); [need picture of different kinds of fish] used to fish in spring when ice cracks would open. They fished with a jig with a little handle, stick. Caught cod by jigging. Sarah (b.1933), Annie (b.1935), Maggie (b.1937), Sam (b.1939), Emily (b.1941), William (b.1943) were there when Sarah’s mother was alive until 1944. They moved to Kuujjuarapik. In 1941 or 1942 when Sarah was 8 or 9 they left Kuujjuarapik. They moved outside Kuujjuarapik. They lived in semi-tents with trees branches with moss between and a canvas on top. Spruce branches on the floor. Her mother would change the branches six children and mom and dad; Jimmie Ekoomiak Fleming and with his wife had their own tent. Grandmother Fleming was very strict. We lived in camps a lot. Grandmother Fleming kept all her sewing tools wrapped in a loon skin. Eight-year old Sarah and her grand Aunt Dinah wanted to look at the sewing tools but they knew they weren’t supposed to. Her father Charlie Ekoomiak was a good carver and he carved a doll for Sarah. He used to go away for two weeks at a time. All the men would go. The six children would stay behind with her mother. The children didn’t eat as well when the men were gone. Sometimes her mother would catch a rabbit. Sometimes she would fish. Once when Sarah’s mother was going fishing, she told Sarah to take care of Sammie who was only an infant c. 1940. Sarah was only seven or eight years old. Thsi was before Willie was born. They only had a ptarmigan a little meat. Sarah was told to chew the food before giving it to Sammie. Instead she swallowed it. Sarah felt so bad about this incident that she remembered it in 2004. She told me this story several times. Most of the time she would laugh about it but once their were tears in her eyes. Grandmother Rosie still had a seal oil kudlik to warm her teapot. She used cloth as a wick. She hung her kettle above the kudlik. In the morning it would be so cold and her father would make a fire in the morning. Charlie Ekomiak did carvings and he made harnesses for dogs. He decorated the harnesses with wool. Sarah would make little boots for dogs using a square with a hole and sew them for the dogs’ feet to protect the dogs’ feet in the rough ice. I had experienced that vicarious museum-effect while Sarah Ekomiak told stories of her childhood on the land near Chisasibi, Nunavik in the 1930s. Sarah’s family was semi-nomadic. As they moved from hunting camp to fishing camp, they would sometimes come upon ancient abandoned sites where ancient objects spoke of the people who had passed through here before. They found bones, weapons, the tops of tobacco tin cans recycled for oil lamps and even a narwhal tusk& This was the archives, the museum. When Peter Outridge came to present slides at our home one evening on his Arctic travels, he brought items that were collected from abandoned camps. This sparked Sarah’s memories. Sarah’s mother, Lucie Menarik could speak Cree. The Cree and Charlie Ekomiak camp got along well like a big family. The first time she went to Chisasibi Indians still lived in tents. She remembers them. Some are still living. Claude x 50-year-old lived in Chisasibi and he remembered the Ekomiaks. They shared flour and food with each other. Indians used to have toboggan with all their hunting things. Her father had komatik. They shared whatever they knew. Her aunt married an Indian. She died. They were happy together. They had seven children who are part Inuk and part Cree but now they don’t speak Inuktitut. They were the only Inuit family in Chisasibi. They brought us there to go to school. They got along well with the Cree. They spoke Inuktitut at home and Cree outside. Now in her old community they speak three languages, English too. Sarah’s grandmother taught her how to make good boots because she told her she would need to know how to sew them. 1934. Gold was discovered in Yellowknife. In 1938 the Con mine began production. Two local community supporters were Ingraham, a bootlegger and Giegerich, manager of Consolidated Mining and Smetling Company, now called Cominco. (Parker 1996:28) The Alaska Highway was pushed through BC and the Yukon. The Canol Pipeline was constructed from Norman Wells to Whitehorse through the Mackenzie mountains to carry oil. It was later abandoned. (Parker 1996:29). 1935. In the mid-1930s Atagutaaluk and her husband the shaman chief Ittuksarjuat lived in a qarmaq, a sod or stone house (D’Anglure 2002:222) in Igloolik which was illustrated by her daughter Suzanne Niviarsiat for the publication accompanying the film Atanarjuat (2002:213). Atagutaaluk survived the famine of 1905. A shaman Palluq from Igloolik and Repulse Bay found her. Ittuksarjuat died in. See also 1950 Rousseliere, Guy Mary. 1950. “Monica Ataguttaaluk, Queen of Iglulik.” Eskimo 16:13. 1935-6. Inuit lands and peoples were under the authority of the Department of the Interior, Annual Report 1935-36, p. 36. 1936. The “Department of Indian Affairs was made a branch of the Department of Mines and Resources (1 Ed. VIII Chap. 33). The Indian Affairs Branch was placed under Dr. H.W. McGill as director. The branch included the following components: Field Administration (four inspectors, one Indian Commissioner and one hundred and fifteen agents); Medical Welfare and Training Service (responsible for schools, employment and agricultural projects); Reserves and Trust Service (responsible for land matters and timber disposal); Records Service (responsible for current files and historical material).” 1936. Dr. Charles Camsell was appointed Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. His father was a factor of the Hudson’s Bay Company (Parker 1996:28). 1936. The Hudson’s Bay Company post was established at Igloolik. 1936. Responsibility for Indian Affairs passed to the Minister of Mines and Resources. The position of Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs which was part of the Canadian cabinet from 1867 until 1936, was abolished. 1936. “There was a Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs in the Canadian cabinet from 1867 until 1936 when the Minister of Mines and Resources became responsible for native affairs. In 1950 the Indian Affairs branch was transferred to the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, who had responsibility for “registered Indians” until the creation of the position of Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development in 1966. Before 1966 the Northern Development portions of the portfolio were the responsibility of the Minister of Northern Affairs and National Resources.” 1937. The Catholic mission was built on Igloolik Island at Ikpiarjuk near the town of Igloolik. 1938. These were good years of living on the land for Sarah Ekoomiak and her family. She was only five years old. She can remember being tucked into the nose of her father’s kayak and she could see jellyfish, rocks, and fish. She cherishes this memory. 1938 Roman Catholic mission established at Cape Dorset. 1939 The Indian committee of the Canadian Handicrafts Guild was changed to Indian and Eskimo Committee to include the encouragement of Inuit work. Committee members included Alice Whitehall, Dr. Diamond Jenness. The Inuit collection at that time included miniature baskets, a kerosene lamp, fine fur work, walrus tusk ivories including an altar frontal made by the women of Pangnirtung.(Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:11) 1939 The Supreme Court of Canada ruled the Inuit were entitled to the same health, education and social services as the Indians were granted in the 1876 Indian Act. (Hessel 1998:190) 1939 The Canadian Handicrafts Guild exhibited Bishop Fleming’s Inuit art collection.(Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:11) 1939. Inuit relocations in the Arctic began in 1939 (Tester and Kulchyski 1994). 1939? Just before she died Sarah Ekoomiak’s paternal grandmother, Rosie (1860s- c.1937) lacked the strength and could no longer work as hard as she wanted. She couldn’t help others so she made a promise that her grandchildren would help others. Greatgrandmother Rosie Fleming was very spiritual. She became agitated because she could not tell her people about God so when she died a cigar-shaped form appeared in the sky writing letters of smoke in the heavens. The Hudson Bay company man could read it but none of the Inuit could. Sarah claims that she saw this so it must have been in the 1930s? when she died? The HBC man changed his religion because it was the only improvement he could think of. He changed from Catholic to Anglican. This happened in Kuujuarapik (Great Whale River). 1939 The Canadian Handicrafts Guild exhibited Bishop Fleming’s Inuit art collection (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:11). 1940. Lascaux caves were discovered. Carbon dating provided proof that the human ancestry could be traced much farther back in time than previously understood (Leclerc 1992:36-9). 1940 It was noted in the minutes of the meeting of the Canadian Handicrafts Guild that the art of basketry was practiced in a section of the Ungava region. Basket making had been introduced there c. 1740 by the Moravian missionaries. (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12) 1940s RCMP conducted census of Inuit populations. They assigned the infamous identification numbering system using discs. These disc numbers were dropped during the “Operation Surname” in the 1960s. Canadian government assumed responsibility for Inuit welfare in the late 1940s. (Hessel 1998:8) 1940s. According to Bernard Saladin d’Anglure (2002 Atanarjuat: 225) shamanism was eradicated in the Arctic. An era of intense rivalry between Anglicans and Catholics began ending only in 1962-5 with the Second Vatican Council. Catholic missionaries encouraged Mark Tungilik in Repulse Bay to carve miniature ivories. There was widespread awareness of the threat of atomic bomb in the south. Certitudes in the West were shattered and philosophy was shaken (Leclerc 1992:36-8). 1940s According to Bernard Saladin d’Anglure (2002 Atanarjuat: 225) shamanism was eradicated in the Arctic. An era of intense rivalry between Anglicans and Catholics began ending only in 1962-5 with the Second Vatican Council., 1940s Catholic missionaries encouraged Mark Tungilik in Repulse Bay to carve miniature ivories., 1940s There was widespread awareness of the threat of atomic bomb. Certitudes were shattered. Philosophy was shaken (Leclerc 1992:36-8). 1940 -2 RCMP schooner St. Roch completed Northwest Passage from west to east? 1940 -2 Peter Pitseolak (1902 – 1973) experimented with watercolours and collage dressing a magazine image of Clark Gable with Inuit fur clothing. He would go on to become a skilled photographer. (Hessel 1998:25) 1940 – 45 Guild activities were cut back during WWII. (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12) 1941.S. Arneil, Investigation Report on Indian Reserves and Indian Administration, Province of Nova Scotia (Ottawa: Department of Mines and Resources, Indian Affairs Branch, August 1941). RCAP. 1942 Americans constructed the runway at Frobisher Bay (Iqaluit) leading to the employment of a number of Inuit on the US base until the Americans left in 1964. TY Colin for drawing my attention to this omission. 1943. E9-630 Willie Ekomiak was born in Cape Jones on the coast across from Long Island. His mother dropped Willie when he was a baby and he was hurt. His wrist was bleeding very badly and she cried very hard. His mother Lucie Menarik Ekomiak died shortly after that. They were living in camp somewhere out in Kuujjuarapik. Before her mother died Sarah carried Willie on her back. Their mother died when Sarah was still in school. Sarah was the oldest girl. William was born when the family was moving south from Great Whale River to Fort George because Jimmy Ekomiak Fleming wanted his children to go to school. There were no schools farther north. William, his brother Samuel, Sarah, Maggie, Jeannie all went to school in Fort George. Other Inuit families included the Menarick’s, Isaac Fleming’s children. Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming was the camp leader. They lived by the river. 1944. Lucie Menarik Ekomiak, Sarah Ekoomiak and Willie Ekomiak’s mother died. She had bad migraines perhaps from high blood pressure. When she died he was adopted by his Aunt Martha and Uncle Thomas Ekoomiak. There were three or four camps together. Aunt Martha wore a shawl like many women of the time. Their sister Emilie (b.1941) was also adopted out but she was not well cared for so Charlie Ekomiak got her back from Great Whale River Kuujjuarapik. She became William’s favourite playmate. Great Whale River, Kuujjuarapik (by the Inuit) or Whapmagoostui (by the Cree). 1945. “Indian Health Services was transferred from the Department of Mines and Resources to the Department of National Health and Welfare (P.C. 1945-6495). At this time Eskimo Health Services was also transferred from the responsibility of the Northwest Territories Division of Lands, Parks, and Forests Branch. R.A. Hoey was appointed director of Indian Affairs Branch.” 1945-7. Jimmy Ekomiak Fleming moved south so that the children could attend school in Fort George. Sarah Ekoomiak lived in Chisasibi. Sarah Ekoomiak attended school in Fort George. Her grandfather decided that some of the children would attend Anglican school while the others attended the Catholic school. She tried to play with her uncle Elijah Menarik, her mother Lucie’s youngest brother, but it was hard to communicate because he spoke only Cree. They had made up a game using pebbles. Ask her about this. Elijah Menarik (1931-1991) was the youngest of ten children. The others were Lucie (Sarah Ekoomiak’s mother), Moses, Neeala, Johnny, Maggie, Marianne and Elijah. Marianne is still alive but she has developed alzheimers disease. His sister Lucie was Sarah Ekoomiak’s mother. Elijah was brought up with a Cree family with ten children and he could not speak Inuktitut until he was in his late teens. A white teacher Mrs. Heinz, had him sent to Inukjuak when he was 18 or 19 years old so he could learn Inuktitut! Elijah was active in the Co-ops in Iqaluit. He also worked in Inuvik for awhile. Sarah has his story and photo. Elijah’s success led to his alcoholism as every success was celebrated with alcohol. When he was young he worked as an orderly in Moose Factory hospital. His daughter Jeannie, Sarah’s first cousin lives in Africa with her millionaire French husband, originally from Montreal, who made a fortune in aircraft. 1945-61. Oblate missionary Father Franz van de Velde was the only white person in the remote community of Pelly Bay. He encouraged the production and marketing of ivory miniatures and scenes. He sold them through the mail (Hessel 1998:109). 1945 Maurice, at 32 years of age moved to New Zealand, became a bookseller in an English village and never traveled again. 1946 The International Whaling Commission (IWC) began regulating whaling. 1946 Canadian Army’s Arctic military exercise “Operation Muskox” at Baker Lake. Major Cleghorn noted the high quality of carvings in the Keewatin area and suggested this potential developed. 1946. American capitalists began to invest in Canadian companies. Prior to WWII British investors were the principal investors in Canadian companies (Leclerc 1992:36-8). 1946. Barnett Newman (1946) wrote the opening paragraph ‘Northwest Coast Indian Painting’ in an exhibition catalogue for the Betty Parsons Gallery in New York, in which he argued that, “It is becoming more and more apparent that to understand modern art, one must have an appreciation of primitive arts, for just as modern art stands as an island of revolt in the stream of Western European aesthetics, the many primitive art traditions stand apart as authentic accomplishments that flourished without benefit of European history (Cited in Houle 1982:3).” 1946. La philosophie francaise souffrait d’une mise en question. La guerre et l’occupation avait mis fin a l’anti-intellectualisme bergsonien (compromis par une obscrue parante avec l’irrationalisme allemand). En 1946 des hegelians et les existentialists commence a monter.1946 La philosophie francaise professionelle commence a naitre, souverain, temoin et juge exterieur a la vie, distingue par leur distance (la vie spirituelle). (Lefebvre 1958:12). 1946 La philosophie francaise souffrait d’une mise en question. La guerre et l’occupation avait mis fin a l’anti-intellectualisme bergsonien (compromis par une obscrue parante avec l’irrationalisme allemand). En 1946 des hegelians et les existentialists commence a monter.1946 La philosophie francaise professionelle commence a naitre, souverain, temoin et juge exterieur a la vie, distingue par leur distance (la vie spirituelle). (Lefebvre 1958:12), 1947 Dr. Hugh Keenleyside was appointed Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. Under his leadership education, social service and health programs were implemented. (Parker 1996:30), 1947 In connection with Operation Muskox, a weather station was established in Baker Lake. 1947 M.V. Nascopie sinks off Cape Dorset. 1947 The Guild was asked to encourage Inuit in the Ungava region to continue carving as a much needed source of additional income. Hunting was poor, the price of fur was down and the Inuit had proven their gift for carving. The Guild emphasized the need to maintain the artist’s individuality and independence. A one-page letter was sent to northern communities asking them to carve ivory models, brooches, pendants… (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12) 1947 James Houston from Grandmère visited Port Harrison.(Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12) 1947. Dr. Hugh Keenleyside was appointed Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. Under his leadership education, social service and health programs were implemented. (Parker 1996:30). 1947. Jock McNiven, manager of Negus mine in Yellowknife, was appointed to the Council of the Northwest Territories. (Parker 1996:30). 1947. Three years after the death of his first wife Lucie, Charlie Ekomiak married Maggie Tootoo (tuktu). William was in the hospital when he was three. He was a chubby baby. 1947. “The Welfare and Training Division was split into a Welfare Division (responsible for welfare, family allowances, Veterans’ Land Act administration, and handicrafts) and an Education Division.” 1947. Henri-Georges Clouzot’s classical film Quai des Orfevres was shown portraying the dance halls and historic crime corridors of 1940s Paris. Various furs — fox furs, sunburst, coats, collars, trim, hats — worn by Jenny Lamour, the ambitious singer with stars in her eyes, in the chilly interiors of poorly heated Parisian buildings, were important ‘actors’ in this classical film. 1947. The western part of the Mackenzie delta area was added to the Yukon Territories. (Parker 1996:30). 1948. Communists took over Czecheslovakia. There was a threat of an iron curtain dividing Europe along a north-south axis. The Cold War began with democratic and communist countries in tension each holding the other in atomic terror (Leclerc 1992:36). 1948. Polio struck the Keewatin region. By 1949 there was a serious epidemic in Chesterfield Inlet. Quarantine was put into affect which included the surrounding regions. Mark Kalluak, wrote about his childhood experience with polio in a 1997 article for Inuktitut magazine. 1948-52. These were the years William Ekomiak (b.1943) remembers as the hungry years. Sarah was between 15 to 19 years old. Willie was between 5 to nine years old. 1949 – 1953 Early years of contemporary period of Inuit art. 1949 The Guild sponsored James Houston’s trip to Povungnitok region in order for him to purchase Inuit arts and crafts.(Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12) 1949 Canadian Handicraft Guild of Montreal sale of Inuit art on Peel Street. Guild members C. J. G. Molson (Quebec branch)and Alice Whitehall encouraged James Houston to return north to buy more carvings. This marked the beginning of what art historians call the “contemporary period of Inuit art” (Wenzel 1985:81) The Canadian Handicraft Guild sponsored the James Houston project promoting Inuit carvings in the south. From this time onwards public galleries began small collections of Inuit art (Jessup 1992:xiv)? Confirm? 1949. “Indian Affairs Branch transferred to the Department of Citizenship and Immigration (13 Geo. VI Chap. 16). The administrative structure of the Branch remained virtually unchanged. A Construction and Engineering Service, however, was created. 1948 – Maj. D.M. MacKay appointed director of Indian Affairs Branch.” 1949. Striking of the Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences popularly known as the Massey Commission after its Chair, Vincent Massey. 1949-50. The NWT Ennadai Lake Signal Detachment of Operation Muskox? arranged an airlift of the Kazan River Inuit community. The group was in danger of starvation after migrant caribou herds by-passed the area. The Inuit returned the next year and were frequent recipients of the detachment’s medical aid until the detachment closed three years later. In that year there was widespread starvation. Comment: Was there a relationship between the disappearing caribou herds and Operation Muskox? 1949 Molson, C. J. G., Alice Whitehall, et al. 1949. The Guild sponsored James Houston’s trip to Povungnitok region in order for him to purchase Inuit arts and crafts (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12). Canadian Handicraft Guild of Montreal sale of Inuit art on Peel Street. Guild members C. J. G. Molson (Quebec branch) and Alice Whitehall encouraged James Houston to return north to buy more carvings. The Guild held a sale of Inuit art on Peel Street, Montreal marking the beginning of the contemporary period of Inuit art. (Wenzel 1985:81) (1949-53). Montreal, Canadian Handicraft Guild. The Guild sponsored James Houston’s trip to Povungnitok region in order for him to purchase Inuit arts and crafts.(Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12) Canadian Handicraft Guild of Montreal sale of Inuit art on Peel Street. Guild members C. J. G. Molson (Quebec branch) and Alice Whitehall encouraged James Houston to return north to buy more carvings. The Guild held a sale of Inuit art on Peel Street, Montreal marking the beginning of the contemporary period of Inuit art. (Wenzel 1985:81) (1949-53) 1940s – 50s Polio in the North. 1950. Cape Dorset gets a one-room school. 1950. Federal day school opened in Igloolik. Anglican mission established in Igloolik. 1950. From 1850 to 1950 concepts such as Wilderness and North informed Canadian visual and literary arts. See Heath (1983:46). 1950. Heinrich’s (1950) article entitled “Some Present-Day Acculturative Innovations in a Nonliterate Society” published in the American Anthropologist focused on his study of the emergence of the ivory carving as a Diomede Eskimo of Alaska cultural industry. The Inuit innovated and expanded on cultural products for the tourist market. 1950. Hugh Young, a strong army man, was named Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. In 1925 he had established Aklavik as an army signals station (Parker 1996:30). 1950. “In 1950 the Indian Affairs branch was transferred to the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, who had responsibility for “registered Indians” until the creation of the position of Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development in 1966. Before 1966 the Northern Development portions of the portfolio were the responsibility of the Minister of Northern Affairs and National Resources.” 1950. Inuit first vote in a Canadian election (Alia). 1950. A nursing station was built at Baker Lake. 1950. The “offices of Minister of Mines and Resources and Minister of Reconstruction and Supply were abolished by Statute and the offices of the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Minister of Mines and Technical Surveys and Minister of Resources and Development created and proclaimed in force on 18 Jan. 1950.” wikipedia. 1950. Rousseliere, Guy Mary. 1950. “Monica Ataguttaaluk, Queen of Iglulik.” Eskimo. 16:13. 1950. There were only five galleries advertised in the Montreal Star. By 1972 there were already forty-five. Harold Town graduated from the Ontario College of Art in 1944 was not able to see a single non-figurative painting until 1953. See Withrow (1972:8). Town noted that at that time their were few art teachers because of the war. Town grew up in a rough working-class WASP neighbourhood in Toronto. He worked as commercial illustrator to support his own studio work in the 1940s. His reputation grew when he exhibited with the Painters Eleven in 1952. His work was highly cotés which allowed him to have a comfortable home in Toronto with his family. 1950 A nursing station was built at Baker Lake. 1950s Puvirnituq developed around a HBC post. 1951 Anglican church is built in Cape Dorset. 1951 James Houston visited Pangnirtung and showed crafts and carvings. He noted that the area did not have really good carving stone. But the women could create art with a needle by sewing on their clothing. 1952 Doug Wilkinson produced Land of the Long Day about Joseph Idlout from Pond Inlet, a respected hunter and camp leader.The 1967 two dollar bill depicted a still from the film with Idlout. 1950s Slump in fox fur trade. 1950s In Rankin Inlet some Inuit employed by nickel mine. 1952 Canadian government promotes Inuit art. Akeeaktashuk carvings of Hunter, Bear… 1952 Salluit began its art project and by 1955 70% of the adult population were carving (1998 Hessel). 1953 Pangnirtung used to be largest settlement in the eastern or central Arctic. Famous old center for Scottish whalers. Small hospital. C. D. Howe anchored there. Pannirtung Fjord is particularly beautiful. Mountains are blue, snow capped. 1953 Houston visited Pangnirtung again and saw some enormous Arctic bowheads (Houston, James. 1996:151). 1955 Alma and James Houston settle in Cape Dorset and are active in encouraging carving and handicrafts. 1955 DEW Line was built. 1955. Turquetil Hall residence was opened in 1955(?) in Chesterfield Inlet. Source Alexina Kublu Inuit Studies, Nunavut Arctic College. 1957 – 58 Widespread starvation in the Keewatin area. Back River camps move into Baker Lake. 1957 A federal dayschool opened at Baker Lake. Pre-fabricated subsidized government housing constructed from the mid-1950s. Northern Services Officer Doug Wilkinson encouraged the development of the arts and crafts industry in Baker Lake. 1958 James Houston studies printmaking in Japan. 1958 The Povungnitok Sculptors’ Society formed in 1958 and became the Povungnituk’s Co-operative in 1960 (Myers, M. ). 1959 West Baffin Cooperative first print collection printed in 1959 was shown at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts in 1960. 1960s Jorgen Meldgaard excavated Palaeo-Eskimo occupations at Igloolik. 1961 Bernard Saladin d’Anglure was shown petroglyphs Dorset sites of the coast of Nunavik. 1961 West Baffin Eskimo Co-operative is incorporated. 1963 Rankin Inlet ceramics project introduced. 1960s The Winnipeg Art Gallery and the Canadian Museum of Civilization (the National Museum of Man) started to collect, research and exhibit Inuit art. 1964 The first ‘matchbox” houses are brought to Cape Dorset. Cape Dorset gets its first telephones. 1969 The S.S.Manhattan, an American icebreaker-tanker made the $40 million northwest passage through Canadian Arctic waters . 1970 Inuit Tapirisat of Canada (ITC) a national political association, formed by Inuit students living in the south. Inuit politics was born. Before the 1970s the co-op was the only organized voice Inuit had. (Myers 1980:139) 1970 Baker Lake’s first print collection published. This was the year after the arrival of southern artists Sheila and Jack Butler. Sanavik Co-operative is incorporated in 1971. 1971 “Arctic Quebec cooperatives combined with the community councils to begin negotiating a form of regional government within the province of Quebec (Myers 1980:143).” 1971 Inuit sculpture showcased in international exhibition, Sculpture/Inuit: Masterworks of the Canadian Arctic(Canadian Eskimo Arts Council). 1970s Igloolik artists begin to produce art in quantities in 1970s. 1973 – 1988 Pangnirtung printmaking co-op is established as a territorial government sponsored project. 1976 The annual Cape Dorset print collection included Pudlo Pudlat’s controversial print entitled Airplane. 1976 “Before 1976 the anti-sealing campaign centered on the need for sound conservation and humane killing practices. After 1976, because of a strong regulatory regime enacted by the Canadian government on species conservation, the issues shifted to a ‘morality of any use of seals’ (Wenzel 1991:47).” 1977 Inuit prints showcased in international exhibition, The Inuit Print/L’estampe Inuit(National Museum of Man, National Museums of Canada). 1977 Inuit Circumpolar Conference adopted Inuit as the designation for all Eskimos, regardless of local usages. (1996) Arctic Perspectives. 1977 Baker Lake print shop, its drawing archives and 1977 print collection are destroyed by fire. 1980 “Inuit arts and crafts generated five million dollars in personal income for Inuit (Myers 1980:141).” 1980 The Macdonald Stewart Art Centre acquired over 400 drawings dating from the 1960s to the 1990s by Canadian Inuit artists. 1980s The National Gallery of Canada and the Art Gallery of Ontario begin to collect, research and exhibit Inuit art. 1980s In the 1980s, postcards were distributed to 12 million United States and United Kingdom households depicting the infamous Canadian Atlantic fisher swinging a bat at a baby seal and eliciting an overwhelming emotional response. Major legislative bodies relented to public pressure with a staggering impact on wildlife management. The collapse of the sealskin market marked a victory for protesters who had waged the most effective, international mass media campaign ever undertaken (Ejesiak, Flynn-Burhoe 2005).” 1981 In 1981 ringed seal natisiq provided nearly 2/3 of the edible biomass in Clyde River. In 1982-3 seal was barely half this total (Wenzel 1991:125) 1982 The members of the European Economic Community agreed to a voluntary ban on the importation of seal products and have recently agreed to indefinitely extend this embargo (Wenzel 1985).” 1983 Economy of the North: Until 1983 cash came from seal skins. 1985 “Inuk lawyer Paul Okalik’s arguments for recognition of the seal as mainstay of the Inuit fell on deaf ears in 1985. Today, he speaks as the premier of Nunavut, Canada’s newest territory, a vast region of the central and eastern Arctic covering over a million square miles. Nunavut, which means ”our land,” is the result of decades of deliberations, one of four Canadian Arctic regions involved in self-government negotiations (Ejesiak, Flynn-Burhoe 2005).” 1985 George W. Wenzel wrote an article entitled “Marooned in a Blizzard of Contradictions: Inuit and the Anti-Sealing Movement” in the journal Etudes Inuit Studies in which he argued that “For the past thirty years opponents of commercial sealing, as practiced in Canada have attempted through public, media, and governmental pressures to bring an end to the hunt.” “The 1985 Council of the European Economic Community extended the 1983 ban on imports of all products of the commercial sealhunt. This closed the most important fur fashion market to sealskins and devastated the Canadian sealskin market. It was an impressive victory for animal rights activists. “To Inuit, however, who had gone virtually unnoticed in the general furor of lobbying in the preceding days, it represented not simply the loss of a market but the real problem of maintaining the fabric of their culture in the face of southern domination.” At this time, in 1985, the Royal Commission on Seals and the Sealing Industry was in the midst of hearings on the sealhunt. Canadians hoped that this ‘hard scientific data’ would convince the EEC of the environmental integrity and socioeconomic importance of at least some aspects of sealing.” This was a naive point of view. When the ban was extended no thought was given to the consequences in the lives of 25,000 Inuit. The Inuit had just presented their testimonies to the Royal Commission. These were not heard before the EEC made their decision. In the US and Europe “…anti-sealing waged a ‘public relations battle’ to ‘capture southern hearts and minds’. “The milestones of this war were recorded by the contributions that reached the campaign coffers and the bags of pre-printed IFAW and Greenpeace postcards that inundated the desks of politicians.’ ‘Canada’s Inuit did not choose to be involved in the sealing controversy. To Inuit it was an issue between Qallunat – those Whites who took sealskins for money alone and those to whom this was wrong (Wenzel 1991:3).” 1987 The Macdonald Stewart Art Centre presented its touring exhibition Contemporary Inuit Drawings, the first survey exhibition of drawings by Inuit artists. 1989 First Inuit art exhibition in the National Gallery of Canada’s new building: Pudlo: Thirty Years of Drawing. Pudlo Pudlat attends opening. 1991 George W. Wenzel published Animal Rights, Human Rights: Ecology, Economy and Ideology in the Canadian Arctic. This research which began as a short journal article developed into a book over a ten year period. Much of the data gathered on the Inuit sealhunt was gathered in Clyde River, Baffin Island in the late 1980’s. The US Congress, antifur groups were other ’sites’ of research. This is the most thorough, the most credible of all the research materials available on the sealhunt. 1992 Pangnirtung’s Uqqurmiut Inuit Artists Association opens its weave shop, built a new print shop and began releasing collections. 1994 Baker Lake Art Symposium, Baker Lake which included the opening of the exhibition Qamanittuaq: Where the River Widens. 1998 First Inuit art history survey textbook published Hessel, Ingo. Inuit Art. He described how more than 4,000 Inuit have made over one million works since the 1940s. (Hessel ix) 35,000 Inuit live in about 50 small communities in the North. (Hessel 1998:9) 1999 April 1, the First Government of Nunavut was formed under Paul Okalik. Over the next five years the Nunavut Government stablished a Unified Court system; Human Rights Act for Nunavut was passed by the Legislative Assembly; Created Inuit Impact Benefit Agreement on Territorial Parks in partnership with NTI; Established major crown corporations: Nunavut Housing Corporation and Qulliq Energy Corporation; Signed a Northern Co-operation Accord with the Northwest Territories and Yukon; Updated and created legislation and policies to reflect the specific needs of Nunavut; Negotiated a protocol with Nunavut Tunngavik Inc. on bilateral co-operation. A review of the protocol was conducted and, in light of experience, resulted in the government and NTI agreeing to conduct their working relations in accordance with Iqqanaijaqatigiit (Working Together.) (GN 2004). 2000 Edward Beauclerk Maurice was 87-years-old completing his book on his youthful experience in Canada’s North in the 1930s. He worried about the use of the word Eskimo instead of Inuit. His manuscript was already complete and when he was in the North Eskimo was the term used. 2001. In September 2001, “the Standing Senate Committee on Aboriginal Peoples commenced hearings to develop An Action Plan for Change: Urban Aboriginal Youth . Upon examination of issues affecting urban Aboriginal youth in Canada, in particular, access, provision and delivery of services, policy and jurisdictional issues, employment and education, access to economic opportunities, youth participation and empowerment and other related matters, the Committee is expected to table its report no later than June 28, 2002. So far, the Committee has held seven meetings and heard evidence from witnesses of the Department of Human Resources Development Canada, the Privy Council Office, Statistics Canada and the Department of Justice Canada.” See SSCAP (2001) 2001. Inuit elder, artist, cultural worker and activist, Mariano Aupilardjuk was honoured with an Aboriginal Achievement Award in 2001 for his contributions as a bridge between generations, Inuit governance, local residents, on how to use IQ in modern society. In local Rankin Inlet elementary and secondary schools, at NAC, across Canada, advises RCMP, facilitates community and pan-territorial healing, and works with youth to help them acquire land skills. 2002 Bernard Saladin d’Anglure translated Mitiarjuk Nappaaluk’s Sanaaq, a fictional account of a woman in Nunavik who was born in the 1930s. 2002 E/IS. 2002. “Etudes Inuit Studies: Contents of “Inuit and Qallunaaq Perspectives: Interacting Points of View”.” 26 1. 2003 “Climate change is eroding the role Inuit elders play in their communities because it makes their traditional knowledge unreliable, elders told researchers at a workshop on global warming last week in Kangiqsujuaq (Nelson 2003).” 2004 The ICC got the idea of petitioning the Commission from the compelling scientific evidence of the Artic Climate Impact Assessment (Watt-Cloutier 2004). 2004 Wayne Govereau, Population and Public Health, Dept. of Health and Social Services, Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut was investigator for the Nunavut. Dept. of Health and Social Service for a research project entitled, “Monitoring temporal trends of human environmental contaminants in the NWT and Nunavut : Inuvik and Baffin regions.” “The Nunavut Department of Health and Social Services with support from the Northern Contaminants Program is delivering a program which measures levels of environmental contaminants in the blood and hair of volunteer pregnant women from the Baffin region. The overall goal of this program is to establish a time trend of selected environmental contaminants in human blood and hair in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. The results from this study will strengthen national and international efforts to limit the global pollution that affects northern people. Information collected about lifestyle during pregnancy will help to explain relationships between lifestyle and exposure to environmental contaminants, and to promote healthy babies and pregnancies in Nunavut. The study will involve the recruitment of pregnant women in Iqaluit once they arrive to give birth. Women will be asked to answer some questions about lifestyle and diet during pregnancy. Participants will be asked to sign a consent form agreeing to provide a hair sample, a sample of their blood and blood from their umbilical cord after it has been cut. The blood sample will be collected during a scheduled blood draw, and will not involve and risk or discomfort beyond what is normally experienced. During the recruitment process, women can decide whether they wish to sign a consent form agreeing to also participate in Phase 2 of the study in 2005/2006. Phase 2 involves follow up with their infants at 6 months of age. This follow up will involve tests to assess if prenatal exposure to contaminants has effected infant development. Communication is an important part of this monitoring program. Communication activities will be ongoing with communities, stakeholders and participants throughout the program (ASTIS 2007).” 2004 Kativik Regional Government and Laval University signed an agreement resulting in the creation Nunivaat Nunavik statistics program which provides updated statistics and research reports. Nunivaat now has a database of information at 2005 “Over 100 dignitaries, family and friends were on hand at the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut as The Honourable Ann Meekitjuk Hanson was sworn in as the third Commissioner of Nunavut on April 21, 2005. In an emotional ceremony, Elders, the Premier of Nunavut, Members of the Legislative Assembly, federal representatives, and honored guests applauded as Ann Meekitjuk Hanson was appointed to the post. She was sworn-in officially and signed the oath of office with Senator Willie Adams presiding, as the representative of the Government of Canada, which officially appointed her to the post [. . .] Commissioner Hanson is the 3rd official Commissioner of Nunavut, following Helen Mamayaok Maksagak and Peter Taqtu Irniq (GN 2005 ).” 2005 Rodolfo Stavenhagen, special rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people of Canada reported to the Commission on Human Rights that, “In Nunavut, the existing social housing units are among the oldest, smallest and mostcrowded in Canada. There is a severe housing shortage in Nunavut that adversely affects the health of Inuit, in particular of children, and it is estimated that 3,500 new units are needed over the next five years. The overall health of Inuit continues to lag far behind that of other Canadians. Life expectancy is 10 years lower than the rest of Canada. Many health indicators are getting worse. Arctic research shows that changes in traditional diets lead to increased health problems,particularly of mental health, characterized by increased rates of depression, seasonal affective disorder, anxiety and suicide. Inuit leaders are deeply concerned that the housing, education,health and suicide situation have reached crisis proportions and are not being addressed by the federal Government (Stavenhagen 2005:#38-39).” 2006 Gérard Duhaime of Laval university, produced a socio-economic profile of Nunavik. 2007-03-29 Kirt Ejesiak of Iqaluit was chosen to represent Nunavut for the federal Liberals. “Ejesiak, a Fulbright Scholar, has a masters of public administration degree from Harvard, making him the first Inuk to hold a post-secondary degree from the American university. Before going to Harvard, he had served as an Iqaluit city councillor and deputy mayor, and was Premier Paul Okalik’s principal secretary.He is currently CEO and creative director of Uqsiq Communications, an Iqaluit-based multimedia communications firm, as well as managing partner of the Gallery by the Red Boat, an art gallery in Apex (CBC 2007).” 2007-09-25 Indian and Northern Affairs minister Chuck Strahl visited Iqaluit, Nunavut Tuesday, where he announced $17 million in new funding for ­International Polar Year projects. The money funds 10 research projects, and includes $7 million to study the impact of climate change on the Arctic tundra and $2.5 million to study the changing sub-Arctic treeline. 2007-10-04 A researcher with the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Gary Stern, presenting at the northern contaminants workshop in Lake Louise, Alberta, admits that the levels of mercury particularly in the Arctic Ocean have risen over the last fifteen years and indeed have been linked to health problems such as birth defects and cancer. In spite of that however, he contends that the benefits of eating caribou, whale (beluga) or ring seals as a rich source of vitamins and nutrition are greater than the risks. He also admits that more studies must be done to reveal the sources of mercury contamination which are particularly high in Arctic birds, beluga and ringed seals (CBC 2007-10-05). 2007-09 Skills Information System Receives National Award Data Shows Positive Changes for Nunavut Students 2007-10 Inuit Employment within Nunavut Government Increased to 50 per cent Selected bibliography ASTIS. Arctic Science and Technology Information System. 2007. Abstracts of Research Projects Involving Inuit. Freeman, M. 1976. Inuit Land Use and Occupancy Project, Vol. 3: Land Use Atlas. Ottawa: Dept. of Indian and Northern Affairs. Berger, T. R. 1980. Report of the Commission on Indian and Inuit Health Consultation. Ottawa: Health and Welfare Canada. Berger, T. R. 1985. Village Journey: The Report of the Alaska Native Review Commission. New York: Hill and Wang. Brice-Bennet, C. Ed. 1977. Our Footprints Are Everywhere: Inuit Land Use and Occupation in Labrador. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer. Castellano, Marlene Brant. 1983. “Canadian Case Study: The Role of Adult Education Promoting Community Involvement in Primary Health Care.” Unpublished manuscript. Trent University. Castellano, Marlene Brant. 1986. “Collective Wisdom: Participatory Research and Canada’s Native People.” Convergence. 19 (3):50-53. 1920-. Beaver, A Magazine of the North, vol. 1-. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Hudson’s Bay Company. 2001 [1975]. “Comments on Carving Soapstone by Aktug, Atoat and Pauloosie, The Beaver, Winnipeg: Hudsons’s Bay Company, Autumn 1975. Courtesy of The Beaver, Canada’s National History Society.” in North: Landscape of the Imagination, vol. V. Ottawa, ON: National Library of Canada. Bibliography. Interviewing the Elders: Perspectives on Traditional Law. Blodgett, Jean and Bouchard, Marie. 1986. Jessie Oonark: A Retrospective. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery. Boswell, Randy. 2003. “Unsung Arctic heroine.” in The Ottawa Citizen. CBC. 2007. “Ejesiak given federal Liberal nod in Nunavut. ” 2007-03-29. CBC. 2007-10-05. “Traditional food better despite pollutants, researchers say.” CMC. “Lost Visions, Forgotten Dreams Life and Art of an Ancient Arctic People.” Canadian Museum of Civilisation. DIAND. 1975-. “Igloolik Research Centre.” Duhaime, Gérard. 2006. “Socio-Economic Profile of Nunavik 2006.” Ejesiak, Kirt; Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2005. “Animal Rights vs. Inuit Rights.” The Boston Globe. May 8, 2005. Ejesiak, Kirt; Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2005. “Animal Rights vs. Inuit Rights.”The Boston Globe. May 8, 2005. >> Op-Ed. Kennedy School. Harvard University.Eber, Dorothy. 1971. “Pitseolak: Pictures Out of My Life.” Toronto: Oxford University Press. Eber, Dorothy H. . 1985. When the Whalers were up North Montreal: : McGill-Queen’s University Press. Native and Northern Studies. . Eber, Dorothy Harley. 2004. “Eva Talooki: Her Tribute to Seed Beads, Long-time Jewels of the Arctic.” Inuit Art Quarterly 19:12-17. George, Jane. 2000. “Inuit lodge complaint over government dog extermination.” in Nunatsiaq News. Kuujjuaq. GN Government of Nunavut. 2004. ” Pinasuaqtavut: 2004-2009:Our Commitment to Building Nunavut’s Future Working to improve the health, prosperity, and self-reliance of Nunavummiut).” (GN 2005 ). GN Government of Nunavut “ 2007. – October – Aktuupa.” Grygier, Pat Sandiford. 1994. A Long Way from Home: the Tuberlosis Epidemic among the Inuit. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Iglauer, Edith 1964. “Re Armour, Bill’s role in Baker Lake cultural industry in the early 1960s.” Macleans. Iqallijuq, Rose and Johanasi Ujarak. 1998. “The Private and Public Performances of the Angakkut: Discoveries of starvation and cannibalism through ilimmaqturniq.” Pp. 159-162 in Cosmology and Shamanism: Interviewing Inuit Elders, edited by B. S. d’Anglure. Iqaluit, NU: Nunavut Arctic College. Mitchell, Marybelle. 1996. From Talking Chiefs to a Native Corporate Elite: The Birth of Class and Nationalism among Canadian Inuit. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Nelson, Odile. 2003. “Climate change erodes Inuit knowledge, researches say: Change in weather, change in health.” Nunatsiak News. January 24, 2007. Niven, Jennifer. “Ada Blackjack: A True Story of Survival in the Arctic.” Oosten, Jarich, Frédéric Laugrand, and Wim Rasing. 1999. Perspectives on Traditional Inuit Law, vol. 12. Iqaluit, NU: Nunavut Arctic College. Parker, John. 1996. Arctic Power: The Path to Responsible Government in Canada’s North. Peterborough: The Cider Press. Patrtridge, Shannon. 2002. “A Social History of Film-Making in the North.” in Introduction to Northern-Centred Sociology, edited by M. Flynn-Burhoe. Iqaluit, NU. Pauktuutiit. 1991. Arnait, the Views of Inuit Women on Contemporary Issues. Ottawa, ON. Rideout, Denise. 2001. “Nunavut’s Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit group gets started.” in Nunatsiak News. Iqaluit, NU. Rousseliere, Guy Mary. 1950. “Monica Ataguttaaluk, Queen of Iglulik.” Eskimo 16:13. Rowley, Graham. 1998. Cold Comfort: My Love Affair with the Arctic. Montreal/Kingston: McGill/Queen’s University Press. Sissons, Jack. 1998. Judge of the Far North. The Memoirs of Jack Sissons. Toronto, ON. Statscan. 2001. “Inuit population.” Ottawa, ON. Stavenhagen, Rodolfo. 2005. “Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people of Canada.” Commission on Human Rights. SSCAP. 2001. Hearings to develop An Action Plan for Change: Urban Aboriginal Youth Steenhoven, Geert van den. 1958. Caribou Eskimo Law. Ottawa, ON: Department of Northern Affairs. Wachowich, Nancy, Apphia Agalakti Awa, Rhoda Kaukjak Katsak, and Sandra Pikujak Katsak. 1999. Saqiyuq: Stories from the Lives of Three Inuit Women. Montreal/Kingston: McGill/Queen’s University Press. WAG. 1982. Eskimo Point/Arviat. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery. Watt-Cloutier, Sheila. 2004. “Climate Change and Human Rights.” Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs. Wenzel, George W. 1985. “Marooned in a Blizzard of Contradictions: Inuit and the Anti-Sealing Movement.” Etudes Inuit Studies. 9:1:77-92. Wenzel, George W. 1991. Animal Rights, Human Rights: Ecology, Economy and Ideology in the Canadian Arctic. Toronto/Buffalo: University of Toronto Press. 206pp. Tester, James and Peter Kulchyski. 1994. Tammarniit (Mistakes): Inuit Relocation in the Eastern Arctic 1939-63.Vancouver: UBC Press. Creative Commons 2.5 Flynn-Burhoe, 1992 -2007, “Timeline of Inuit Social History.” >> Google Docs Last updated November 30, 2007. Creative Commons 2.5 Flynn-Burhoe, 1992 -2007, “Timeline of Inuit Social History.” >> Speechless Last updated November 30, 2007.
  • Rhoda Karetak
    Rhoda was born in 1933 on the northern part of South Hampton Island to Mary Tarlik and Joe Curley. As a child Rhoda was determined not to be left out amongst her male siblings and cousins. She began trapping fox when she was 9 years old and sewing kamiks at age 12. Rhoda did not attend school as there was no opportunity to do so. Rhoda married Harry Gibbons and had two children. 1952 found them at Maguse River where her father was helping missionaries translate a bible at the local Mission. It was during the 3 years at Maguse River many family members died from disease, including Joe Curley and her husband. Afterwards, Rhoda and her family relocated to Arviat. In 1954 Rhoda married Johnny Karetak. Rhoda’s family continued to grow. In 1963 she spent 1 1/2 years in a sanitorium for treatment for tuberculosis. There she received a basic education. Rhoda has maintained a busy lifestyle. She raised her large family and cared for other people’s children. She sewed all her children’s clothing. Rhoda has always been involved in traditional cultural activities and as such has continually promoted Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit (traditional knowledge). She is the past president of the Inuit Cultural Institute, has been cultural advisor to the Nunavut Government and has worked for the Department of Education on curriculum development to include the Inuit perspective. The common thread through Rhoda’s many achievements and awards is her desire to, ‘keep Inuit culture alive.’ With that aim, she has been a tireless advocate.
  • Mariano Aupilardjuk
    Pelly Bay lies on the extreme northern coast of the Canadian Arctic. The people from this region, called Netsilingmiut, waged a constant daily battle to survive. They lived amongst countless lakes and rivers but the harsh climate disallowed vegetation other than mosses, lichens and small plants in this treeless land. Because of the permafrost, the earth cannot absorb rain nor melting snow. In 1923 Mariano was born in this desolate wilderness of brutally cold winters and short, cool, summers. Survival meant harvesting the animals that also eked out an existence. Seal, caribou and musk oxen provided the necessities of food, clothing, fuel and materials for making tools. In 1942 Mariano and Marie Tulimaaq were wed in a pre-arranged marriage in Repulse Bay. Mariano continued to hunt sea mammals but also trapped fox, to barter for other items at the Hudson Bay Company. Like many Inuit, Mariano experienced periods of deprivation but no one of his camp perished. In 1981 Mariano and his family moved to Rankin Inlet. As the modern world engulfed the ancient Inuit culture, Mariano was advised to leave his traditional lifestyle behind. His vision was different, however. If the Inuit were to survive as a culture he felt they must keep the ties to the old ways alive. In pursuit of this goal, Mariano spends time traveling Canada, teaching traditional knowledge to young people. Believing current and future generations should know how to survive on the land, Mariano Aupilardjuk helps keep tradition alive.
  • Henry Isluanik
    Born on the land in 1925, Henry grew up in Whale Cove. He moved with his family to various communities in the north and for one year lived in Baker Lake. It was a desperate time as very few caribou could be found. Most of the people living in the camps survived on the few fish they managed to catch. His father taught Henry how to survive on the land and by 16, after receiving a dog team as a gift from his uncle, Henry became a hunter. He was very successful and in 1945 Henry bought a boat from the H.B.C. with the fox furs he trapped. Henry married Akupinik and in 1954 Henry and his growing family moved to Arviat. For 20 years he worked for the Arviat Medical Services as a community Health Care worker. During this period Henry hunted and fished primarily on the weekends. Henry also began carving and continues to do so. Since retiring he spends more time on the land and also hunts seal and beluga whale. When I caught up with Henry in 2006 he had just returned from a successful caribou hunt. Henry is a small, friendly, fellow with an engaging smile who enjoys talking about his life and experiences.
  • Celina Utanaaq
    Celina was born on January 1, 1928 at Siatuuq which lies north of Baker Lake. Her father, Akturungniq, drowned in a boating accident when she was a child. She remembers the difficult times she and her mother, Qaqsaupiaguk, experienced. "Soon after my father died, that fall, my mother had to build an igloo. She did not know how and was standing out in the snow crying as she tried to build the igloo. It was cold and winter was coming. She managed to cut the snow blocks for the sides but didn't know how to build the dome. That part she covered with an old tent. She and I lived in that igloo all winter. " The husband is the main provider for the family through hunting, fishing and trading. Not having her father to perform these tasks made life extremely difficult for Celina and her mother. "My mom mostly fished to feed us. She was now the sole provider. Sometimes the Roman Catholic Church would give food to help us. That is how we survived." Celina cooks caribou every spring and summer in a 45 gallon drum in her yard. She continues to sew although her eyesight is beginning to fail. Celina is a hard working, gentle, person who taught her children patience and to be concerned with the welfare of others. Although the Utanaaq family no longer live together on the land, they do enjoy occasional afternoons in spring and summer, in their tent, living as they did many years ago.
  • Elisapee Tunnuq
    Tunnuq was born in 1928 in a place called Tuklirutit. Her people were called, Harvaqtuurmiut, because they lived in the land surrounding the lower Kazan River system. Soon after Tunnuq was born, she was brought by dog team to Baker Lake to be baptized. There she was given the Christian name, Elisapee. During the spring her family spent much time by Harvaqtuuq (Kazan River) when the caribou began to cross. The land and in particular the crossing areas were treated with utmost respect in accordance with traditional beliefs so that the caribou would cross where expected. Their importance could not be overstated as these animals were indeed the essence of life to these people. In May, 1944, Elisapee, 16 years old, married Moses Ookaulleeyak, aged 42. “There were some very hard times after I got married. We were at a place called Kitgavik and we were very hungry. I had my first child, Havaa, at that time. My husband would try to fish because there were no caribou around. He had hurt himself and couldn’t walk for a time. He would crawl on his stomach to go fishing.” It took 5 days to travel by dog team to Baker Lake to trade. When her family acquired rifles Elisapee killed tuktu with her .22. “I got lots of caribou. We needed them for clothing to survive the winters and for food and other things. ” At the end of the 1950’s her family moved to Baker Lake where Elisapee worked at the Health Care Center. Elisapee is a healthy, spirited, little woman who is very popular at youth camps where she enjoys passing on traditional knowledge
  • John Ivalutanar
    Between Repulse Bay, on the Arctic Circle and Pelly Bay, to the north, lies Kamichee Bay. It was here John was born on September 18th, 1944. At age 9 John moved with his family to Repulse Bay. One of his earliest memories was his first taste of candy at the local Hudson Bay store. He recalled fondly, "It was so good!!” John commented about living on the land, “I was taught by my father, uncles and close relatives about surviving on the land. When you know how to act and behave in different situations, you don’t have problems. For instance, I was taught to recognize when being too close to walrus and polar bears because they can become very dangerous. They will react a certain way and you must be aware of the situation to avoid the danger.” In 1970 John married Uluta. The couple raised three sons and adopted a girl. John’s unique hat was purchased by his wife in 1978 from the Hudson Bay store. John initially didn’t like it, preferring his fur hat but began to wear it in the spring when the weather was warmer. In 1996 while out camping, it got torn, so Uluta, with no material to repair it put on a patch instead. She planned to put material on later but John suggested she keep adding patches to it instead. Others began giving John patches for his hat. Uluta says, ‘patches came from everyone and everywhere.’ John, a cancer survivor, is a healthy, friendly fellow who enjoys spending time on the land and as acting Lay Minister for the local Roman Catholic Church.
  • Sata Kidlapik
    Sata was born in 1945 in the southwest of Baffin Island at Cape Dorset. His family moved to Repulse Bay when he was a young boy. Sata was taught to hunt by his father, Piluardjuk. He commented, "I was out with my father as soon as I could walk long distances." At that time his family lived predominantly in a sod house. He remembered losing many relatives to sickness during that period. In 1968 Sata married Elizabeth. They have 6 children, still alive, plus 3 whom they adopted. Now Sata employed his own dog team to assist him in the hunt. In 1976 his family moved to Igloolik where a year later Sata purchased his first snowmobile. He gradually phased out his dog team. In 1984 his family moved back to Repulse Bay for the last time. Sata likes hunting caribou, whale and seal. I photographed him wearing a hat made of ringed seal fur crowned with seal claws. Sata has been on the town council for several years and is a pastor at the Glad Tidings Church. He also guides for hunters who wish to experience the far north. I always enjoy seeing Sata. His solid presence and sense of humor characterizes how I pictured the inhabitants of the far north.
  • John Adjuk
    John Adjuk was born in 1913 in the Back River region of Nunavut. He grew up learning how to hunt and fish on the barrenlands. A resourceful young man, John rescued a girl from starvation who eventually became his wife. Monica and John have been together ever since. Life took a turn for the worse, however, in 1949. Starvation was imminent so the Adjuk family (now 4 of them) began a three month trek to Perry River on the coast. It got so severe on the journey caribou hide was consumed after the hair had been scraped off. Eventually they arrived at their destination and remained for 5 years. In 1955 they returned to Garry Lake but in early 1958 the family of five was evacuated to Baker Lake when famine struck the land. Agnes Turner, born in 1947, learned much from her father. “My father taught me how to hunt and survive on the land. ‘Use your common sense at all times. If you do not you will get lost. Survival skills are mental, physical and psychological.’ He also taught me life skills. ‘The best teacher is going to be yourself.’ He taught me how to deal with people when I grew up. He said, ‘God made you an Inuit. Be proud of who you are.’ In March, 1964, the Adjuk family, which now included 6 daughters, moved to Whale Cove because it was thought the hunting and fishing was better. I met John several times and admired his humor and intelligence. His portrait provoked laughter and the comment, “I look like an English gentleman.” John Adjuk, the oldest elder of Whale Cove, passed away in 2006 much loved and respected in his community.
  • Inuktitut Our Language
    Learning new languages is always fun and interesting. Inuktitut is a language varied by many dialects and there are differences by the region and even between communities. Here are some words and phrases that you would find in everyday life presented in English and Inuktitut. There are links included below as well to learn more about Inuktitut for those who wish to learn more. Inuit write in something called syllabics. Inuktitut is the name of some of the Inuit languages spoken in Canada. It is spoken in all areas north of the tree line, including parts of the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec, to some extent in northeastern Manitoba as well as the territories of Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, and traditionally on the Arctic Ocean coast of Yukon. It is recognised as an official language in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. It also has legal recognition in Nunavik—a part of Quebec—thanks in part to the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, and is recognised in the Charter of the French Language as the official language of instruction for Inuit school districts there. It also has some recognition in Nunatsiavut—the Inuit area in Labrador—following the ratification of its agreement with the government of Canada and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Canadian census reports that there are roughly 35,000 Inuktitut speakers in Canada, including roughly 200 who live regularly outside of traditionally Inuit lands. Source - Wikipedia under the creative commons license. You can also find more about syllabics relating to Inuit language at For more about Inuktitut visit the Uqausivut program page at the Ottawa Inuit Children's Centre. You can also check out Tusaalanga Inuktitut online at You will see below several common words and phrases, as well as common animals, objects etc. You will see the words in English and Roman Orthography to make them easier to pronounce. The second chart also offers the phonetic variations to make them even simpler. Start off with this simple list of the days of the week. Then you can read further in the tables that follow. Sunday - Naattingujaq Monday - Naggajjau Tuesday - Aippiq Wednesday - Pingatsiq Thursday - Tisammiq Friday - Tallirmiq Saturday - Naattingujalaarniaq
  • The Inuit Impact
    The Inuit have come a great distance across the geographic landscape of Canada. Inuit were here long before there even was a Canada. Many people do not realize however that the very identity of Canada itself has been reflected back at itself through the ingenuity and determination of the Inuit spirit. Whether it be something that was an Inuit invention, or the perserverance of certain individuals, or the collective will of the Inuit people, Canadian identity is impacted by Inuit. Below are examples of invention, historical moments and biographies of Inuit who have impacted the very fabric of Canada.
  • Historical Moment - The Formation of Nunavut
    The formation of Nunavut is the first event in Canada of its kind. Inuit are the aboriginal people to create and establish a self governing territorial government. Establishing self government is key to self determination and a new future for Inuit. In 2009 Nunavut celebrate it's 10 year anniversary. Nunavut’s 26 communities are spread across nearly two million square kilometres - almost one-fifth of Canada. Its population is over 29,000, 85% of whom are Inuit. 1973 Inuit Tapirisat of Canada (ITC) begins a study of Inuit land use and occupancy which eventually demonstrates the extent of Inuit aboriginal title in the Arctic. This study forms the geographic basis of the Nunavut Territory 1976 ITC proposes the creation of a Nunavut Territory as part of a comprehensive settlement of Inuit land claims in the Northwest Territories. The Nunavut Proposal calls for the Beaufort Sea and Yukon North Slope areas used by the Inuvialuit to be included in the Nunavut Territory.That same year, due to development pressure in the Beaufort Sea area, the Inuvialuit split from ITC to negotiate a separate land claim agreement. Also that same year, a federal electoral boundaries commission recommends dividing the Northwest Territories into two federal electoral districts: Nunatsiaq and the Western Arctic. This recommendation is put in effect for the 1979 federal election. 1980 At its Annual General Meeting in October, ITC delegates unanimously pass a resolution calling for the creation of Nunavut. 1990 Tungavik Federation of Nunavut (TFN) and representatives of the federal and territorial governments sign a land claims agreement-in-principle in April. The agreement supports the division of the Northwest Territories and provides for a plebiscite on boundaries 1992 In January, TFN and government negotiators come to an agreement on the substantive portions of a final land claims agreement for the Nunavut region. The agreement contains commitments for the creation of a Nunavut territory and government, subject to a boundary plebiscite and the conclusion of the Nunavut Political Accord. This Accord would detail the timetable and process for establishing Nunavut. 1992 An overall majority of voters in the Northwest Territories and the Nunavut area approve the proposed boundary for division in a May plebiscite. In October, TFN and government representatives sign the Nunavut Political Accord, setting the creation of Nunavut as April 1, 1999. In November, in a Nunavut-wide vote, the Inuit of Nunavut ratify the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement. 1993 The Nunavut Agreement is signed in May. In June, the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act and the Nunavut Act are adopted by Parliament and receive Royal Assent. 1995 and 1996 Footprints in New Snow and Footprints II, documents written by the Nunavut Implementation Commission, recommend that certain headquarter and regional functions of the Nunavut government be decentralized to communities. Footprints II is used as the blueprint for the foundation of the Government of Nunavut. 1997 The Office of the Interim Commissioner is established to help prepare for the creation of Nunavut. It is responsible for setting up an operational government ready to function effectively on April 1, 1999. 1998 Amendments to the Nunavut Act are adopted by Parliament and receive Royal Assent. 1999 The Nunavut Territory and Government come into existence on April 1.
  • Historical Moment - The Nunavut Land Claims Agreement
    The Nunavut Land Claims Agreement is the largest Aboriginal land claim settlement in Canadian history. It's creation was the necessary seed for the formation of Nunavut. Canadians can be proud that it's aboriginal voices are being heard and the aboriginal land claims are vital to the growth and prosperity of its aboriginal communities. The Nunavut Land Claims Agreement is a 1993 land claims agreement between the Inuit of the Nunavut Settlement Area (then part of the Northwest Territories) and the Government of Canada subject to the Constitution Act of 1982. The lands are not deemed to be "Lands Reserved for Indians" with respect to the Constitution Act of 1867. The Inuit were represented by the Tunngavik Federation of Nunavut to establish the agreement. The agreement specifies two areas that are subject of the agreement: Area A consists of Arctic Islands and mainland Eastern Arctic, and their adjacent marine areas; Area B includes the Belcher Islands, its associated islands and adjacent marine areas.[1] (A complete inventory of land, islands and marine territory subject to the Nunavut Land Claim Agreement is listed in the agreement itself.) The agreement of July 9, 1993 was the basis for creating the new territory of Nunavut, which was officially established on April 1, 1999. The agreement led to a political accord which established dates for introducing legislation to Parliament for the eventual creation of the territory, the Government of Nunavut, and a transition process. Under the terms of the agreement, jurisdiction over some territorial matters was transferred to the new government, among them wildlife management, land use planning and development, property taxation, and natural resource management. Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia You can learn more about the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement and related publications here
  • Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement
    The second major land claim victory for Inuit has come for the Inuit of Labrador with the formation of the Nunatsiavut Governent and the The Labrador Inuit Land Claim Agreement. The Labrador Inuit Land Claim Agreement (LILCA) defines the rights of Labrador Inuit in and to our ancestral lands. It is basically a contract between the Inuit of Labrador (represented by the Labrador Inuit Association), the Government of Canada and the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. The LILCA was ratified by the Labrador Inuit; the legislative assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador; and the Parliament of Canada. On June 23, 2005, the agreement received Royal Assent from the Governor General of Canada, marking the end of a journey that stretched over 28 years. There are several useful and educational publications to view and download at Nunatsiavut Goverment website at: Source: Nunatsiavut Government
  • Inuit Invention - Clothing - The Parka
    It didn't take long for Europeans and other early settlers coming to Canada to realize the need for cold weather clothing that stood up to cold Canadian winters. Now the influence of Inuit parkas is not only evident in Canadian winter fashion but around the world. Whether it's the stylized patterns around sleeves or the hood and bottom faux fur trim the inspiration for these designs is clear. When Canadians are featured in film, literature or television they are more times than not dressed in a parka and is synonymous with others as a visual identity of Canadians. "As early as 1718, Caribou Inuit were trading with Hudson's Bay Company ships that travelled along the west coast of Hudson Bay. Coloured cloth, glass beads and metal added a new dimension to personal adornment and clothing decoration that conferred prestige upon the wearer. Caribou Inuit men's inner parkas were decorated with beadwork in geometric compositions. Although beads were placed in areas that followed traditional clothing decoration, the designs gave the seamstress an outlet for her creative flair." Source: Museum of Civilization
  • Inuit Invention - Clothing - Kamiiks (Boots)
    Kamiiks are another one of those fantastic Inuit inventions that Canadians adopted as their own. Traditionally kamiiks are made from caribou or seal skin and are extremley durable, waterproof and above all they are warm. Traditional Kamiiks are sewn together with sinew as it is extremely tough yet light and thin. Now even a top brand name of winter boots it's easy to see how this Inuit invention caught on with Canadians and they spurred on a Canadian fashion industry.
  • Inuit Invention - The Qajaq (Kayak)
    The Inuit qajaq was made sleek, fast and light so that hunters could move quickly to capture their prey. These boats were covered with stretched seal skin and extremely boyant. Even though there are other variations the design and word were copied because it was such a superior design and construction. The kayak is extremely easy for a single person to return to an upright position even if flipped completely upside down. Now kayaking is a major sport not just in Canada but around the world. A great Canadian past time thanks to Inuit ingenuity.
  • Inuit Invention - Inuksuk
    The Inuksuk (prounouced ee nook shook) has become a representation of Canada to the world since the Vancouver 2010 Olympic games. The Inuksuk however is familiar to people coast to coast to coast in Canada. Inuksuit (plural) can be seen everywhere from the entrance of the Nation's capital airport to small town rural gardens. What many don't know are the meaning and origin behind them. An Inuksuk is a stone marker that acts in the place of a person. They can serve many purposes and have been vital to the survival of Inuit out on the land. The inuksuit (plural) that are commonly used and created in the shape of a person are called Inunnguaq. Inuksuk have always been constructed out on the land from whatever stones where available in the immediate vicinity. Since each Inuksuk was built by hand with nearby stones each one is different from the next. Each one built represents the land around it and since it is built from the land it represents it also has a strong tie to the land for many Inuit. Once built they are considered sacred and if destroyed or disassembled, it is said to be a bad luck and some say shorten the life of the one who destroys it. Inuksuit have been used for hunting and navigation mostly. Inuit hunting caribou would build a kind of scarecrow made of a few stones high and would insert Arctic Heather in them so that the blowing wind would cause the heather to appear like human hair. Once spooked the caribou would stampeded along a path by the aligned Inuksuit which ultimately led them into the arrows of awaiting hunters. You can learn more about Inuksuit and Inunnguaq on the Inuksuk page or check out the video podcast on Inuksuk: Build and Learn.
  • Difference Makers - Historical, Political and Cultural Contributions - Ms. Leona Aglukkaq"
    Ms. Aglukkaq was first elected to work for the Nunavummiut in the House of Commons in October 2008. On October 30th, 2008 she became the first Inuk to be sworn into the Federal Cabinet. Prior to entering federal politics Ms. Aglukkaq served in the Nunavut Legislative Assembly as the MLA for the district of NATTILIK (communities of Gjoa Haven and Taloyoak). During her time as an MLA, Ms. Aglukkaq was elected by her peers to be part of the Executive Council. She was first given the responsibility of Finance Minister and House Leader, before becoming the Minister of Health and Social Services and the Minister for the Status of Women. Ms. Aglukkaq throughout her life has enjoyed an extensive career in Government. Before entering politics, Ms. Aglukkaq served in numerous roles in both the Governments of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, including as Deputy Clerk of the Legislative Assembly, Deputy Minister for Culture, Language, Elders and Youth, Deputy Minister for Human Resources and as an Assistant Deputy Minister for Human Resources and Executive and Intergovernmental Affairs. Whether it has been during her time involved in the federal government, the territorial government, the Cambridge Bay municipal government, where she served for six years as a Councilor, her numerous hours spent volunteering in the communities, or during her time serving on different boards, such as the Arctic College Board of Governors, the Nunavut Impact Review Board or the NWT Science Institute; Ms. Aglukkaq has always fought hard for Inuit issues that she was raised to believe in. Ms. Aglukkaq was raised in Thom Bay, Taloyoak and Gjoa Haven. Ms. Aglukkaq is married to Robbie MacNeil and has a son Cooper.
  • Difference Makers - Historical, Role Model to Youth - Jordin Tootoo"
    Jordin Tootoo has made history as the first Inuk to play for the NHL. His success is thanks to his tenacity , hard working spirit and always following his dream.. Jordin grew up in Rankin Inlet, Nunavut, on Hudson Bay. Jordin Tootoo, is the Nashville Predators' right wing. Jordin is a role model who set his sights on the NHL and has never looked back. "It's always good to be different," he says. "Being the first [Inuit] player to play in the National Hockey League was a goal of mine. And I don't think any kid should be shy of being different from anyone else. It sets the tone for a lot of different things." Jordin is known for his speed, puck-handling skills and strong shot did. He gained success in his final junior team success with 35 goals and 39 assists playing for the Brandon Wheat Kings. At 5'9" and 193 pounds, it hasn't deterred him or stopped him from playing his style or playing Jordin's game of hockey. Date of birth: February 02, 1983 Place of birth: Churchill, Man., Canada Drafted by Nashville in 2001 - Source Hockey Digest
  • Difference Makers - Recording Artist - Susan Agulkark
    Singer / songwriter Susan Aglukark is one of Canada’s most unique artists and a leading voice in Canadian music. She blends the Inuktitut and English languages with contemporary pop music arrangements to tell the stories of her people, the Inuit of Arctic Canada. The emotional depth and honesty of her lyrics; her pure, clear voice and themes of hope, spirit and encouragement have captivated and inspired listeners from all walks of life. Susan’s genuine concern for others combined with her political & social awareness lead many to view her as a role model. She is also rapidly becoming known as an uplifting motivational speaker, able to reach both youth and adult audiences alike. Susan had held command performances for HRH Queen Elizabeth (twice), Canadian Prime Ministers Jean Chretien and Brian Mulroney and the President of France, Jacques Chirac. She has performed for Nelson Mandela and Governor General of Canada Adrienne Clarkson as well as several other dignitaries. Equally important to her are the many, many communities across Canada and the Arctic. Most recently, Susan was invited into the Order Canada and was presented her Officer of the Order of Canada award in September of 2005 for her contribution both musically and as a workshop facilitator and mentor in the aboriginal community. Awards include: Juno Awards (3) and several Juno nominations presented by C.A.R.A.S. (Canadian Association of Recording Arts & Sciences); the first-ever Aboriginal Achievement Award in Arts & Entertainment, and the Canadian Country Music Association’s (CCMA) Vista Rising Star Award, along with several other CCMA nominations. Susan’s albums Arctic Rose, Christmas, This Child, Unsung Heroes and Big Feeling have sold over 400,000 copies in Canada to date. Susan has her sights set on touring her upcoming new album (due out March 2006) and the continuation of her activist work. Susan says she never strays far from her roots or the people of Arctic Canada where she grew up; her ultimate message, “to learn to be yourself and believe in that person” reaches much further and touches all people everywhere.
  • Difference Makers - Historical, Political and Cultural Contributions - John Amagoalik"
    He is an active Inuit politician who was instrumental in the campaign for the creation of Nunavut and was deeply involved in the quest for compensation for Inuit families that were relocated. Amagoalik was born at a seasonal camp near Inukjuaq in northern Quebec. At the age of five, his family and 17 others were relocated to the high Arctic communities of Resolute and Grise Fiord. He was educated at residential schools in Churchill and Iqaluit. Amagoalik began his political career as the Baffin Regional Information Officer with the Northwest Territories territorial government, a position he held from 1971 to 1974. It was at around this time that he became the first of many to call for the creation of an Inuit homeland to be called “Nunavut.” To help achieve this goal, he acted as head of the NWT Nunavut Land Claims Commission (NLCC) from 1977 to 1979. When that organization dissolved, Amagoalik became part of the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, acting as its vice-president from 1979 to 1981, and serving two terms as president (1981-1985; 1988-1991). At the same time, from 1982 to 1985, he was co-chair of the Inuit Committee on National Issues; in 1986-87, he was chair of the Nunavut Constitutional Forum (NCF). From 1991 to 1993, he was a political advisor to the Tungavik Federation of Nunavut. After the ratification of the Nunavut Act in 1993, Amagoalik was appointed chief commissioner of the Nunavut Implementation Commission – the organization that oversaw the arrangements leading up to Nunavut's creation on April 1, 1999. Amagoalik has received accolades for his work with Aboriginal rights and the Nunavut claim, including the ITC's 20th Anniversary Award, a National Aboriginal Achievement Award, and an honorary degree from St. Mary's University in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
  • Difference Makers - Historical, Political and Cultural Contributions - Paul Okalik"
    He was a researcher and negotiator for the Tungavik Federation of Nunavut and Deputy Chief Negotiator and Special Assistant to the President of the Federation; he played an important role in achieving the 1993 settlement that resulted in the creation of Nunavut in 1999 and participated in its complex implementation. He helped create the Inuit Heritage Trust, the Nunavut Implementation Training Committee, the Nunavut Social Development Council and the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board. In 1999 he was elected Member for Iqualuit West of the first Legislative Assembly of Nunavut and became Nunavut’s first Premier. He served as Minister of Executive and Intergovernmental Affairs and Minister of Justice. A longer biography appears in Native Leaders of Canada. Being the first Premiere of the first fully Inuit governed territory makes Paul Okalik a great role model to those who look to the pioneers in time for inspiration.
  • Difference Makers - Historical, Political and Cultural Contributions - Mary Simon"
    Mary Simon has been a champion of the Inuit voice for over 30 years. She has either assisted or served as the architechts to numerous achievement to bettering the life of Inuit and Inuit relations with the rest of Canada. Canada has also benefited from her tireless work for all Inuit that she received the Order of Canada among many other distinguished awards. Truly a difference maker in every sense. Originally a producer and announcer for CBC North, she began her career as a public servant by being elected Secretary of the Board of Directors of the Northern Quebec Inuit Association. In 1978, she was elected as Vice-President of the Makivik Corporation, later on becoming President, a position she held until 1985. During this period she also became involved with Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Canada's National Inuit Organization. From 1980 to 1994 she served as Executive Council Member, President, and Special Envoy of the Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC). During this period she assisted in obtaining approval from the Russian Government to allow the Inuit of the Chukotka Peninsula to participate in ICC. In 1986, as President of ICC, Simon led a delegation of Canadian, Alaskan, and Greenland Inuit to Moscow and then to Chukotka to meet with Russian Officials as well as the Inuit of the Far East of Russia. In 1987 the ICC was successful in efforts the resulted in the Russian government allowing Russian Inuit to attend the 1989 ICC General Assembly held in Alaska. Simon was one of the senior Inuit negotiators during the repatriation of the Canadian Constitution, during First Minister Meetings that took place from 1982 to 1992, as well as during the 1992 Charlottetown Accord discussions. She also served as a member of the Nunavut Implementation Commission in 1993. In 1994 Simon was appointed by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien to be the first Canadian Ambassador for Circumpolar Affairs[1], a position she held until 2003. Acting on instructions from the government of Canada she took the lead role in negotiating the creation of an eight country council known today as the Arctic Council. The Ottawa Declaration of 1996 formally established the Arctic Council which includes the active participation of the indigenous peoples of the circumpolar world. During her Chairmanship of the Arctic Council, and later as the Canadian Government Senior Arctic Official, she worked closely with the Indigenous Permanent Participant’s of the Arctic Council, and the seven other Arctic Countries it comprises. During this time period she also: * held the position of Canadian Ambassador to Denmark [2] (1999-2001), * was a member of the Joint Public Advisory Committee of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Commission on Environmental Cooperation (1997-2000) and held the chairperson position for the Commission from 1997 to 1998, * was the Chancellor of Trent University[3], and * was appointed Councilor for the International Council for Conflict Resolution with the Carter Center in 2001 From November 2004 to February 2005 she assisted with the facilitation and write-up of reports on the “Sectoral Follow-up Sessions” announced by Prime Minister Paul Martin following the April 19, 2004 Canada-Aboriginal Peoples Roundtable on Strengthening the Relationship on Health, Life Long learning, Housing, Economic Opportunities, Negotiations, and Accountability for Results. From 2004 to 2005 Simon was special advisor to the Labrador Inuit Association on the Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement, and was appointed president of Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami on July 7, 2006. Honours Mary Simon has received national recognition for her leadership and innovation in developing strategies for Aboriginal and Northern affairs. * Order of Canada , November 1, 2001, * Officer of the Order of Canada, November 17, 2005, * National Order of Quebec, January 21, 1992, * the Gold Order of Greenland (1992), * the National Aboriginal Achievement Award (1998), and; * Gold Medal of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society (October 22, 1998). * Symon Medel, November 3, 2009, Source: Wikipedia, ITK, Ottawa Inuit Children's Centre
  • Difference Makers - Historical, Political and Cultural Contributions - Sheila Watt-Cloutier"
    She is a Canadian Inuit activist. She has been a political representative for the Inuit at the regional, national and international levels, most recently as International Chair for Inuit Circumpolar Conference. Watt-Cloutier has worked on social and environmental issues affecting Inuit, and has most recently focused on persistent organic pollutants and global climate change. She has received numerous awards and honors for her work, notably the Order of Canada and a nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize (2007). She has been a political representative for Inuit for over a decade. From 1995 to 1998, she was Corporate Secretary of Makivik Corporation. From 1995 to 2002, she was President of the Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) Canada, and was International Chair from 2002 to 2006. Her recent work emphasizes the human rights impacts of global climate change in the Arctic. A longer biography appears in Native Leaders of Canada.
  • Shelter
    Information about the similarities and differences of the lifestyles of a traditional Inuit family and that of a modern urban Inuit family. Shelter Traditional: Summer: Tent (tupik) Winter: Snow hut (iglu[singular]; Igluit [plural]), sod house (qarmait) Modern: House (illuvut) Modern VS Traditional Shelter Websites with more information:
  • Hunting & Food
    Traditional: Diet consisted mainly of meat from various animals like caribou (tuktu), walrus (aiviq), seal (nattiq), and whale (qilaugaq) Modern: Expensive food bought at the local Co-op or Northern store, or shipped up from the south. Most Inuit still eat traditional foods, they are just caught differently. Modern VS Traditional Hunting & Food
  • Clothing
    Traditional: Fur clothing, handmade by women, sewn by sinew and needles made of bone. Modern: Mainly clothes bought from a store. Inuit still make traditional clothes but usually use modern materials such as duffel and cotton. Modern VS Traditional Clothing
  • Adoption
    Traditional: Adoption was a vital part of traditional life, families could either ask a pregnant woman for a child, or a pregnant woman would choose a family for her child. Modern: Children are still adopted, and it is recognized by most provinces and territories. Modern VS Traditional Adoption
  • Language
    Traditional: Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, Inuinnaqtun, Nunatsiavummiutut Modern: Inuktitut (commonly used to refer to the general language spoken by Inuit in Canada), English & French Modern VS Traditional Language
  • Entertainment
    Traditional:Games such as string games, juggling, drumming and throatsinging. Modern:Televisions, video games, computers and hip-hop. Modern VS Traditional Entertainment See ICOR podcasts for examples of various games.
  • Sports
    Traditional:Games like the one foot high kick, two foot high kick, seal hop, arm pull, leg wrestle and musk-ox push are still played today. Modern: All sports are popular up north, but hockey is a favourite. Adaptations of games like baseball can last all night long in the midnight sun of the summer. Modern VS Traditional Sports
  • Transportation
    Traditional: Qamautiik (sleds), Umiak (boats), Kayak Modern: Snowmobiles, ATV’s, automobiles, trucks, speedboats and motorized canoes. Modern VS Traditional Transportation
  • Customs
    Traditional: Gender differences for specific role; although men mainly hunted and women mainly made clothing, it was vital for a woman to know how to feed her family, and a man to repair damaged clothing while hunting. Modern: Holidays such as Christmas and Easter play a vital part to many Inuit Communities, with special community gatherings with food and music. Modern VS Traditional Customs
  • Education
    Traditional: Inuit children would learn through observation and imitation. Modern: Inuit children attend schools in their own communities. Modern VS Traditional Education
  • Life On The Land
    To Inuit, life on the land is and was an everyday adventure. Surviving one of the harshest environments on the planet is no small task. Every part of the land offers a key to surviving and thriving. The land itself offered shelter as shelters were built from snow and ice. The stones from the earth were carved into tools, the Qulliq (lamp) and offer a variety of stones from which to build navigational, communication and hunting aids (i.e. Inuksuit) The ground vegetation in the summer months offer berries, herbs for tea and medicinal aids. Animals offer more than the obvious sources of food. Animals offered clothing, blankets and padding for sleeping, bones for tools and games, and so forth. All of the tools for hunting and survival even the tools for building transportation all came from the surrouding land. Inuit are indeed ingenious masters of the land. The skills for life on the land are still taught to children from birth. Young children accompany their parents as they go out on the land to learn everything from traditional hunting and tracking methods to berry picking and clam digging. Sewing skills are also taught early as it is still a root part of Inuit culture born out of surviving on the land. When out on the land many stories were taught to children in order to pass on knowledge. Many were in the form of Inuit legends designed to keep children away from the many possible dangers that accompanied living on the land. You can learn more about Inuit legends here and here You can learn more about some of the other aspects of life on the land from watching some of our video podcasts.
  • Inuksuk - Inunnguaq - Inuksuit
    An Inuksuk is a stone marker that acts in the place of a person. They can serve many purposes and have been vital to the survival of Inuit out on the land. The inuksuit (plural) that are commonly used and created in the shape of a person are called Inunnguaq. Inuksuk have always been constructed out on the land from whatever stones were available in the immediate vicinity. Since each Inuksuk was built by hand with the stones on hand every one is different from the next. Each one built represents the land around it and since it is built from the land it represents it also has a strong tie to the land for many Inuit. Once built they are considered sacred and if destroyed or disassembled, it is said to be a bad luck and some say shorten the life of the one who destroys it. Inuksuit have been used for hunting and navigation mostly. Inuit hunting caribou would build a kind of scarecrow made of a few stones high and would insert Arctic Heather in them so that the blowing wind would cause the heather to appear like human hair. Once spooked the caribou would stampeded along a path by the aligned Inuksuit which ultimately led them into the arrows of awaiting hunters. Inuiksuit were also built to show a direction or formed a window to lead the viewers eye to prime land for caches of meat, or other significant locations. Today many Inuit display the Inuksuk as a symbol to signify pride in Inuit culture, the land and visual reminder to history and traditional values. This can be seen in the lower right image, as displayed outside a home in Iqaluit, Nunavut's capital. To learn more about Inuksuit and Innungqaq visit these sources online. Peter Irniq an Inuit elder who calls himself an Inuit Cultural Activist explains further in a video available at The Inuksuk Book : You can also watch the video podcast on how to build your own inuksuk here.
  • Arts, Song, Music"
    Inuit Arts, Music, Dance and Much More Inuit culture is a very rich and diverse culture. It’s expressions of art come in many forms and varieties. Since Inuit have lived in many regions across the north it has created diversity in art forms as well. Many events over the years particularly in Nunavik have embraced the rhythms and sounds of the fiddle; influenced by French and other European settlers. Lithography over the past fifty years has become a staple medium of many Inuit artists. The popular music scene has greatly evolved over the last 20-30 years. More and more musical artists are now emerging, seeing great new talents from the north. Technologies like the internet, broadband connections, easier access to communication tools and social networking have created and explosion of new talent over the last few years. Other traditional Inuit art forms which evolved completely within Inuit culture such as drumming, drum dance, throat singing and sculpting. All of the above offer Inuit ways to share and express their culture, communicate vision and offer a voice to other Inuit and the rest of the world. Embroidery and sewing is another art form which started from the necessity of being about to make strong durable clothing evolved into adding beautiful beadwork and embroidery into garments. Many of the intricate artwork takes countless hours of diligence and passion for the craft. The results are truly breathtaking. The accompanying pages linked from the left side menu under Arts, Song, Music offer a glimpse into some of the many different art forms that Inuit proudly create.
  • Throat Singing
    Throat singing can be heard around the world in various forms, but Inuit have developed a very unique style, methods and sounds all their own. Throat singing was traditionally performed between two women. The songs are sung as a friendly competition; played as a game. One person sets the rhythm, the pace the sound and the other follow. The first person to outlast or not laugh is the winner, as each song tends to end in laughter. To learn more about throat singing watch the throat singing video podcast through the podcast menu or click here. Many throat songs were created to mimic the sounds of daily life or surrounding natural elements and wildlife. As an example a song called “The Cleaning” mimics the sounds you would hear as the rails of the Qamutik was being cleaned; while another mimics the sound of a saw. These games helped to entertain children and women while the men were out hunting. Throat singing was banned by the Christian clergy for decades but in modern day has been accepted. Since then throat singing has seen resurgence in modern Inuit culture and is being restored to its former place of importance in Inuit culture. Many celebrations within Inuit communities be they northern or southern community events are accompanied by the sounds of throat songs. Today throat singing is being passed on to the younger generation to be sure that this amazing piece of Inuit culture remains an honored tradition. It was traditionally passed on to daughter but now young boys are also taking their turn trying out the great game.
  • Drums & Dance
    The Inuit drum is a traditional instrument seen across the north. Drumming was primarily done by men in most communities but not always the case. Drumming was performed at various celebrations, whether it was celebrating the first successful hunt of a young boy or the birth of a child. Drumming was banned by religious figures and government and was seen to be unholy or represented a danger to the philosophies to the church. In modern day Inuit can proudly be seen and heard celebrating an event or their culture once again. There are many young Inuit children who are more than happy to learn this great art form and help to continue proudly celebrating a rich culture. Inuit drums were traditionally made from caribou skin stretched over driftwood which was softened and made into a ring. The drum has a handle which protrudes downward to hold and rotate the drum. The handle was often covered in fur such as seal skin. The Inuit drum is played differently than most drums in that it is not the skin which is struck but rather the rim of the drum. Drumming is often accompanied by dancing such as the polar bear style, in which the drum held low and the drummer dances around mimicking a polar bear while playing. Drumming is also the thing that sets the pace for songs often enough. The drum can be heard accompanying certain kinds of songs appropriately called “ayaya”. To get a better understanding of all of this you can watch our accompanying video podcast on Inuit drumming and also see and hear an ayaya song. The videos are available through the video podcast menu or simply click here.
  • Musicians & More
    As mentioned previously in this site there is an explosion of new talent on the music scene feature Inuit performing artists and musicians. We have provided the list of sites to explore some of the great artists out there and how Inuit music is growing and evovling. We have dicussed throat singing and drum dancing but many may not be aware that with every genre of music out there Inuit are making there mark and bringing Inuit culture to new forms. Whether rap, country, or main stream pop music, there are talented Inuit artists. Here is a list of some great sites and artists. Inuit Circumpolar Music - Inuit Musicians across different regions and across many different regions Performing Artist Sites Artcirq Angava Susan Aglukark Beatrice Deer Inuksuk Records Loucie Idlout Tanya Tagaq Taima
  • Inuit Art
    The Many Forms of Inuit Art The variety and quality of Inuit art showcases to the world that Inuit are passionate about sharing their love of thier culture and the land that has given them so much. Inuit art comes in so many forms and styles vary from community to community and artist to artist. Getting deep into Inuit art is beyond the scope of this site but we'll take a look at the various forms and offer you further resources to further your interest. The most well known form of Inuit art is likley Inuit sculputures, but Inuit art offers, lithographs and printmaking, soft sculptures and dolls, tapestries, embroidery and beading, drawings and painting and so on. Sculptures are carved from bone, antlers, tusks or ivory, and different types of stone. Over fifty years ago Inuit printmaking was introduced and spread to different communities but some of the most noted came from the Cape Dorset co-operative. Intricate beadwork is another beatiful form of art that takes a great deal of time and skill along with the talent to create beautiful wearable art. Dolls started from scraps of fur designed to pass the time and entertain children has grown into an art form of it's own. The History James Archibald Houston, the author of Eskimo Handicrafts, was later sent to Baffin Island to collect specimens of Inuit sculpture. During his stay there, he introduced printmaking to the artists' repertoire. Figures of animals and hunters, family scenes, and mythological imagery became popular. By the 1960s, co-operatives were set up in most Inuit communities, and the Inuit art market began to flourish. Since the early 1950s, when Inuit graphic styles were being developed, some Inuit artists have adopted a polished style rooted in naturalism. Other artists, such as John Pangnark, have developed a style that is highly abstract. Both styles are generally used to depict traditional beliefs or animals. Inuit continue to carve pieces entirely by hand. Power tools are occasionally used, but most artists prefer to use an axe and file, as this gives them more control over the stone. The final stage of carving is the polishing, which is done with several grades of waterproof sandpaper, and hours and hours of rubbing. The most common material is now steatite, or soapstone, either deposits from the Arctic, which range from black to light green in color, or orange-red imports from Brazil. - Source Wikipedia under the creative commons license. Exploring Inuit Art Online There are many great sites that revolve soley around Inuit art and offer fantastic galleries, isights into the process behind the art and so on we hope you enjoy checking out these sites and we will continue to build this list.
  • Country Food
    What is country food? Country food is the name that Inuit use to describe traditional foods. Country food are things like arctic char, seal meat, whale, caribou etc. Originally these foods were consumed for day to day survival. Eating what the land and sea provided. In modern day country foods provide a cultural connection for Inuit that connects family and community and is best shared. Whether in an urban setting or in small northern communities country foods always bring people together and are anticipated at community events. In urban settings, particularly for Inuit living outside the north country food provides a vital cultural connection. Today Inuit also enjoy new ways to experience country food serving them in news ways as demonstrated in the photo of the Tuktu (caribou) Kabobs. In northern communities it is still vital to gather food in traditional ways. An experienced elder demonstrates techniques of bring this Beluga whale ashore. Many traditional methods inlcuding hunting or fishing are best passed on through hands-on work techniques. It is really the preferred way of passing on necessary skills. At an urban Inuit celebration this baby tries Muktuk (whale skin and blubber) for the first time. Also check out the recipes page.
  • Country Food Recipes
    We have gathered our collection " Inuit Country Food Recipes" for those of you who have access to these sources tradtional meat and fish. These 28 recipes are from across the north and represent the collective culinary chops of many Inuit. Many people won't have access to caribou but you can try it with venison or beef. There are many recipes here that you can easily make like arctic char, bannock, salad etc. You should also take a look at our "Bannock Making" podcast in the left hand menu and try making some. It's delicious with just about anything. We hope you enjoy these and get a chance to broaden your pallete. Asian Barbequed Caribou Steak Ingredients 1/4 cup chili sauce 1/4 cup fish sauce 1 1/2 tablespoons dark sesame oil 1 tablespoon grated fresh ginger root 3 cloves garlic, peeled and crushed 2 pounds caribou steak Directions 1. In a medium bowl, whisk together chili sauce, fish sauce, sesame oil, ginger, and garlic. Set aside a few tablespoons of the mixture for brushing the steaks during grilling. Score caribou steak and place in a shallow dish. Pour remaining marinade over the steak, and turn to coat. Cover, and marinate in the refrigerator at least 3 hours. 2. Preheat an outdoor grill for high heat. 3. Lightly brush the grilling surface with oil. Grill steak 5 minutes per side, or to desired doneness, brushing frequently with the reserved marinade mixture. Awesome Slow Cooker Caribou Roast Ingredients 2 (10.75 ounce) cans condensed cream of mushroom soup 1 (1 ounce) package dry onion soup mix 1 1/4 cups water 5 1/2 pounds caribou roast Directions 1. In a slow cooker, mix cream of mushroom soup, dry onion soup mix and water. Place pot roast in slow cooker and coat with soup mixture. 2. Cook on High setting for 3 to 4 hours, or on Low setting for 8 to 9 hours. Bacon Wrapped Duck Breasts Ingredients 1/4 cup salt 8 cups water 12 duck breast halves 12 slices bacon 1 (16 ounce) bottle Italian-style salad dressing toothpicks Directions 1. Mix together salt and water. Set aside 2/3 of the mixture, and pour the rest into a glass baking dish. Soak the duck in the salt water overnight to remove the gamey. Change the salt water twice, or until mostly clear. 2. The next morning, discard the salt water, and pour salad dressing over the duck breasts, and marinate for at least 8 hours. 3. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Wrap each breast half in one strip of bacon, and secure with a toothpick. Place the breasts in a 9x13 inch baking dish. 4. Bake for about 1 hour, or until bacon is crisp, and duck is cooked through. Footnotes On the grill Preheat the grill to medium-high heat. Grill duck breasts for about 30 minutes, turning once. Bolognese Spaghetti Sauce with Sausage (Ground Caribou) Ingredients 6 ounces dried spaghetti 1 pound Italian sausage (casings removed), or ground beef 1/2 cup chopped onion 1/2 cup chopped celery 1/2 cup chopped carrot 1 (28 ounce) can CONTADINA® Crushed Tomatoes 1 cup beef broth 2 teaspoons dried basil, crushed 1 teaspoon dried thyme, crushed Shredded carrot and fresh basil (optional) Directions 1. Cook pasta according to package directions; drain. 2. Cook meat, onion, celery and carrot in large saucepan about 5 minutes or until meat is no longer pink; drain. 3. Stir in undrained tomatoes, broth, basil, thyme and 3/4 cup water. 4. Bring to boil; reduce heat and simmer, uncovered, 40 minutes. Serve over spaghetti. Garnish with carrot and basil, if desired. Campfire Trout Ingredients 4 trout, cleaned and head removed salt and pepper to taste 4 tablespoons butter, divided 1 medium green bell pepper, sliced 1 clove garlic, minced (optional) Directions 1. Place each trout on a piece of aluminum foil. Season to taste with salt and pepper, then stuff the cavity with 1 tablespoon of butter, green pepper and garlic if using. 2. Roll the trout tightly in the foil, forming packets. Use some additional foil to secure each packet of fish to a metal toasting rod for use as a handle when removing fish from the coals. 3. Cover the fish packets in the red hot, smoldering coals of your campfire and cook until the fish is done, 7 to 10 minutes, depending on the heat of the fire. Caribou Chili 2 lbs ground caribou 1 medium onion 4 celery 1 green pepper 2 can kidney beans 1 big can tomatoes 2 tbsp tomato paste 2 tbsp chili powder 2 leaves cloves Brown the ground caribou, drain oil from the caribou add in the onion, celery, pepper fly them for about 10 to 15 mins then add in beans, tomatoes, chili powder, tomato paste and leave cloves and simmer for about 20 mins on medium Caribou - Lost-in-Veggies Stew Ingredients 4 cups fresh cut up caribou with fat pieces (can substitute stewing beef) 6 potatoes 2 beef bouillon cubes OR 2 tbsp beef soup mix 1 onion 1 small turnip 3 carrots, average size 3 parsnips, look like white carrots 3 stalks of celery 3 tbsp Veloutine brand gravy mix 1 tbsp canola oil or a bit of caribou fat or marrow Water Directions Peel off the outer skin of the turnip, and then chop the turnip into small pieces. Wash the potatoes well, and then cut out the “eyes” and any bad bits from the skin of the potatoes. Wash the carrots, parsnips, and celery and cut away any bad parts. Leave the skin on the carrots and parsnips. Cut carrots, parsnips, and celery into small pieces. Peel and chop onion. Cut caribou meat into small pieces. In pot, over medium-high heat, put in caribou and cook out a bit of oil, if not using the canola oil instead. Add meat and onion and stir-fry until all the pieces have been browned on the surface. In layers, add the carrots, then the turnips, the potatoes, the parsnips, and the celery in that order. Add water to cover. Bring to boil and reduce to medium heat to maintain a slow boil. Add the beef bouillon cubes or beef soup mix and stir. Cook for about 35 minutes or until a fork easily flakes the vegetables, especially the carrots and turnip. Push the vegetables and meat aside inside the pot to form a little lake. Into this sprinkle the Veloutine powder, mix well, and let it boil for about 1 minute. The stew gets better if it is cooked and sets awhile and is reheated over low heat or reheated in the microwave. Onion-Crusted Caribou Meat Loaf with Roasted Potatoes Ingredients 1 (10.75 ounce) can Campbell's® Condensed Tomato Soup 1 1/2 pounds ground caribou 1 (2.8 ounce) can French's® French Fried Onions 1 egg, beaten 1 tablespoon Worcestershire sauce 6 small potatoes, cut into quarters Directions 1. Thoroughly mix 1/2 cup soup, caribou, 1/2 can onions, egg and Worcestershire in a large bowl. Place the mixture in a 13 x 9 x 2-inch baking pan and firmly shape into an 8 x 4-inch loaf. Spoon the remaining soup over the meat loaf. Arrange the potatoes around the meat loaf. 2. Bake at 400 degrees F for 1 hour or until the meat loaf is cooked through. Stir the potatoes. Sprinkle the remaining onions over the meat loaf and bake for 3 minutes or until the onions are golden. Caribou Stew 1 lb. Cubed caribou 1 large onion 1 clove garlic 4 celery stalks 1 small turnip 2 large potatoes 3 large carrots 1 can corn or peas or both 5 cups water 1 cup flour In a large mixing bowl, coat the caribou cubes in flour and set aside. Cut all your vegetables to bite size pieces and set aside. Pan-fry the floured caribou until brown and transfer to a large pot then add water and bring to boil on medium heat. Stir-fry the onions, chopped garlic and celery then add to pot when sautéed. Add the rest of the vegetables to the pot and simmer on medium heat for about an hour until broth becomes thick. Classic Clam Chowder Ingredients 2 slices thick-cut bacon, cut into small dice 1 large onion, cut into medium dice 1/2 teaspoon dried thyme leaves 2 bay leaves 1 1/2 cups leftover mashed potatoes 2 (8 ounce) bottles clam juice 4 (6.5 ounce) cans minced clams (clams and juice separated) 1 cup water 9 new potatoes, cut into 1/2 -inch cubes 1/2 cup heavy cream 2 tablespoons minced fresh parsley Salt and pepper, to taste Directions 1. In a large soup kettle, fry bacon over medium heat until bacon crisps, about 5 minutes. Remove bacon; set aside. 2. Keep 2 tablespoons bacon fat in pan. (If necessary, add oil to yield 2 tablespoons.) Add onion and saute until soft, about 5 minutes. Add thyme and bay leaves; cook until fragrant, 30 seconds or so. 3. Whisk in mashed potatoes, clam juice (bottled and what you've drained from the clams) and 1 cup of water. Add new potatoes and bring to a simmer. Reduce heat; continue to simmer, partially covered, until potatoes are tender, about 10 minutes. Stir in clams, cream and parsley; season with salt and pepper. 4. Heat through and serve, garnishing each bowl with reserved bacon. Cod Fish Cakes Ingredients 2 large potatoes, peeled and halved 1 pound cod fillets, cubed 1 tablespoon butter 1 tablespoon grated onion 1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley 1 egg 3 tablespoons oil for frying Directions 1. Place the potatoes in a large pot of water, bring the water to a boil. Let the potatoes cook until they are almost tender. 2. Add the fish to the pot and let the fish and potatoes cook until they are both soft. Drain well and transfer the potatoes and fish to a large mixing bowl. 3. Add butter, onion, parsley, and egg to the bowl; mash the mixture together. Mold the mixture into patties. 4. Heat oil in a large skillet over a medium-high heat. Fry the patties on both sides until golden brown. Drain on paper towels before serving. Hannah's Arctic Char Fish Cakes Ingredients 2 potatoes, peeled and cubed 2 pounds boneless arctic char fillets 2 cups dry bread crumbs 1/2 teaspoon crushed red pepper flakes 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder 2 eggs 1 onion, minced 1/2 cup minced celery 1/2 cup chopped green onions 1/2 cup chopped green bell pepper 1/2 cup chopped fresh parsley 4 cloves garlic, minced salt and black pepper to taste 1/2 cup butter 1/2 cup vegetable oil Directions 1. Place the potatoes into a large pot and cover with salted water. Bring to a boil over high heat, then reduce heat to medium-low, cover, and simmer until tender, about 20 minutes. Drain and allow to steam dry for a minute or two in a large mixing bowl. Mash until no lumps remain, then refrigerate until cold. 2. While the potatoes are cooking, place the salmon fillets into a wide, shallow pan, and cover with lightly salted water. Bring to a simmer over medium-high heat. Once simmering, reduce heat to low, and cook until the salmon flakes easily with a fork and is opaque in the center, about 10 minutes. Drain the salmon, and refrigerate until cold. 3. Stir the bread crumbs, red pepper flakes, and garlic powder together in a bowl; set aside. Stir the eggs, onion, celery, green onion, bell pepper, parsley, and garlic into the mashed potatoes. Shred the chilled salmon with your fingers and place into the bowl with the mashed potatoes. Season to taste with salt and pepper, and gently stir the mixture until just blended. Divide into 1/4 cup portions, and shape into 1/2 inch thick patties. Carefully press the fish cakes into the seasoned bread crumbs, and place onto a plate -do not stack. 4. Heat the butter and oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Cook the fish cakes in batches until the bread crumbs are golden brown on both sides, and the fish cakes are hot in the center, 3 to 4 minutes per side. Iglu Meatloaf Ingredients Part 1 2 lbs ground caribou (or substitute with lean ground beef) ½ cup of bread crumbs 1 medium onion, finely chopped 2 tsp salt 1/8 tsp pepper 1 1/3 cups of canned milk Part 2 Mashed potatoes Cheese slices Part 1: Mix ingredients and pack very firmly into a one and a half quart bowl. Turn bowl upside down and place onto pan (keeping the dome shape). Bake for 1 ¼ hours at 350 degrees F. Part 2: Frost loaf with mashed potatoes. Bake another 15 minutes. Place cheddar cheese slices on top, like snow blocks from an iglu. Return to oven until cheese melts. Jerky Caribou Jerky -Sweet, Hot and Spicy! Ingredients 1 tablespoon onion powder 1 tablespoon garlic powder 2 teaspoons cracked black pepper, or to taste 1 pound lean caribou sirloin tip, sliced into 1/8 inch strips 1/2 cup brown sugar 2/3 cup soy sauce 1/4 cup teriyaki sauce 1/4 cup Worcestershire sauce 1/3 cup balsamic vinegar 5 tablespoons liquid smoke flavoring 1/2 cup pineapple juice 1 teaspoon red pepper flakes, or to taste (optional) Directions 1. In a small bowl or cup, mix together the onion powder, garlic powder, and some cracked black pepper. Season the meat lightly, using only part of the mixture. Reserve the remaining spices. Place into an airtight plastic container or bowl, and refrigerate. 2. In a saucepan over medium heat, mix together the brown sugar, soy sauce, teriyaki sauce, Worcestershire sauce, balsamic vinegar, liquid smoke flavoring and pineapple juice. Heat until the brown sugar has completely dissolved. Pour over the meat, and mix by hand to coat really well. Seal the bowl, and refrigerate for at least 3 hours to marinate. 3. Arrange the beef strips on the rack of a dehydrator, and sprinkle with a little bit more of the spice mixture and red pepper flakes if using. Dry for 5 hours, or to your desired dryness. Footnotes Hint: Use an electric knife and slice a semi frozen sirloin for the ease of cutting and for thinner uniform slices. Lemon Pepper Cod Ingredients 3 tablespoons vegetable oil 1 1/2 pounds cod fillets 1 lemon, juiced ground black pepper to taste Directions 1. In a large skillet, heat oil over medium high heat until hot. Add fillets and squeeze 1/2 of the lemon's juice over the tops. Sprinkle with pepper to taste. Cook for 4 minutes and turn. Squeeze with the remaining lemon's juice and sprinkle with pepper to taste. Continue to cook until fillets flake easily with a fork. Marinated Rabbit Stew Ingredients 1 (2 pound) rabbit, cleaned and cut into pieces 3 cups red wine vinegar 3 cups water 1/2 cup white sugar 1 onion, sliced 2 carrots, peeled and sliced 1 tablespoon salt 1 cup pickling spice 1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper 1/3 cup all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper 3 tablespoons rendered bacon fat 1/4 cup all-purpose flour Directions 1. Put rabbit into a deep bowl and cover with a mixture of the vinegar, water, sugar, onion, carrots, 1 tablespoon salt, pickling spices, and 1/4 teaspoon pepper. Cover and refrigerate 2 to 3 days to marinate, turning pieces frequently. 2. Drain rabbit; strain and reserve marinade. Dry rabbit with absorbent paper. Coat pieces with a mixture of 1/3 cup flour, 1 teaspoon salt, and 1/4 teaspoon pepper. 3. Heat the fat in a Dutch oven or saucepot. Add the rabbit and brown slowly on all sides. Add 2 cups of the marinade. Cover and cook slowly about 45 minutes, or until meat is tender. 4. Thoroughly blend 1/2 up of the reserved marinade and the 1/4 cup of flour. Slowly pour on half of the mixture into cooking liquid, stirring constantly. Bring to boiling. Gradually add only what is needed of remaining mixture for consistency desired. Bring to boiling after each addition. Finally, cook 3 to 5 minutes. 5. Arrange rabbit on serving platter. Pour some of the gravy over the rabbit and serving remaining gravy in a gravy boat. Mixed Berry Bannock 4 cups white flour 2 tbsp. baking powder 2 tsp. salt ¼ cup powdered milk ½ cup vegetable oil or lard 4 cups water 1 ½ cups northern mixed berries (blackberries & blueberries) Directrions Preheat the oven to 350 or stovetop to medium heat. In a large bowl, mix all dry ingredients. If using lard, mix in using 2 butter knives by cutting the lard with the knives. Make a bowl shape with the mixture then pour in the vegetable oil and gradually mix in the water until the mixture becomes doughy. Add the berries and knead, do not knead too much. Make small palm sized balls and place them on the baking sheet then press the dough firmly and then bake until golden brown, about half an hour. If using stovetop, cut the dough into 2 parts and place on the pan then fry until both sides are cooked brown. Mussels Baffin Style Ingredients 1/2 onion, diced 1 bay leaf 1 clove garlic, chopped 2 tablespoons finely chopped carrot 2/3 cup fish stock 2/3 cup dry white wine 4 pounds fresh mussels, scrubbed and debearded 2/3 cup heavy cream salt and pepper to taste Directions 1. In a large saucepan, combine the onion, bay leaf, garlic, carrot, fish stock, and wine. Bring to a boil, and cook for about 5 minutes to soften the carrot and onion. 2. Add the mussels to the boiling mixture, cover, and cook over high heat until the mussels open, about 5 minutes. Shake the pan occasionally to help them cook evenly. 3. As soon as the mussels have opened, remove them with a slotted spoon and set aside. Remove the bay leaf from the broth, and stir in the heavy cream. Heat through, but do not boil. Taste, and season with salt and pepper. Salt may not be necessary depending on the saltiness of your fish stock. 4. Place mussels into serving dishes, and spoon broth over them to serve. Onion Arctic Char Ingredients 1 pound arctic char fillet 1 onion, sliced into rings freshly ground black pepper Directions 1. Preheat an outdoor grill for medium heat and lightly oil grate. 2. Place the arctic char on a large sheet of aluminum foil. Place the onion rings on top of the filet. Pepper to taste. Wrap the foil around the salmon, but don't seal the top. 3. Place the salmon (still in foil) onto a preheated grill and cover. Cook for 15 minutes or until salmon flakes easily with a fork. Orange caribou stir-fry Ingredients 1 pound caribou tenderloin 1 tablespoon grated orange zest 3/4 cup orange juice 1 tablespoon cornstarch 1 tablespoon soy sauce 1/3 cup corn syrup 1/4 teaspoon ground ginger 2 teaspoons vegetable oil, divided 2 large carrots, peeled and sliced diagonally 2 stalks celery, peeled and sliced diagonally 1/2 cup cashews Directions 1. Cut pork tenderloin into thin strips. Set aside. Combine next six ingredients, stirring well. Heat one teaspoon oil in nonstick skillet over medium heat. Add carrots and celery, stir-frying about 3 minutes. Remove vegetables, set aside. 2. Pour remaining oil into skillet. Add pork, stir-fry for about 3 minutes. Return vegetables to pan, add orange juice mixture and cashews. Cook, stirring constantly, over medium-high heat, until thickened. Serve over hot rice, if desired. Roasted Duck Ingredients 2 teaspoons salt 2 teaspoons paprika 1 teaspoon black pepper 1 (5 pound) whole duck 1/2 cup melted butter Directions 1. Preheat oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C). 2. Rub salt, pepper, and paprika into the skin of the duck. Place in a roasting pan. 3. Roast duck in preheated oven for 1 hour. Spoon 1/4 cup melted butter over bird, and continue cooking for 45 more minutes. Spoon remaining 1/4 cup melted butter over duck, and cook for 15 more minutes, or until golden brown. Seafood Chowder Ingredients 1/2 pound sliced bacon, diced 2 medium onion, chopped 6 cups diced peeled potatoes 4 cups water 1 pound bay or sea scallops, quartered 1 pound fresh or frozen lobster, cut into 1-inch pieces 1 pound uncooked medium shrimp, peeled and deveined 1 pound cod, cut into 1-inch pieces 1 pound haddock, cut into 1 inch pieces 1/2 cup butter, melted 4 teaspoons salt 4 teaspoons minced fresh parsley 1/2 teaspoon curry powder 2 quarts milk 1 (12 ounce) can evaporated milk Directions 1. In a large soup kettle or stockpot, cook bacon over medium heat until crisp. Remove with a slotted spoon to paper towels; reserve drippings. Saute onions in drippings until tender. Add potatoes and water; bring to a boil. Cook for 10 minutes. 2. Add the scallops, lobster, shrimp, cod, haddock. Cook for 10 minutes or until scallops are opaque, shrimp turn pink and fish flakes easily with a fork. Add the butter, salt, parsley and curry powder. Stir in milk and evaporated milk; heat through. Garnish with bacon. Seal Stew Ingredients 4 cups fresh cut up seal with fat pieces (about 2 lbs.) – (can substitute with beef) 6 potatoes ¼ cup ketchup or to taste 1 onion 1 small turnip 3 carrots, average size 3 parsnips, look like white carrots Water as required Directions Peel off the outer skin of the turnip, and then chop the turnip into small pieces. Wash the potatoes well, and then cut out the “eyes” and any bad bits from the skin of the potatoes. Leave on the skin and cut into small pieces. Wash the carrots and parsnips and cut away any bad parts. Leave the skin on and cut into small pieces. Peel and chop onion. Cut seal meat into small pieces including some of the fat. In pot, over medium-high heat, put in some seal fat pieces and cook out a bit of oil. Add meat and onion and stir-fry until all the pieces have been cooked on the surface. In layers, add the carrots, then the turnips, the potatoes, and the parsnips in that order. Add water to cover. Bring to boil and reduce to medium heat to maintain a slow boil for about 35 minutes or until a fork easily flakes the vegetables, especially the carrots and turnip. Add the ketchup and stir well. Sensational Arctic Char Loaf Ingredients 1 cooked whole large arctic char 1 1/2 cups crushed saltine crackers 1 egg, slightly beaten 1/2 cup diced green bell pepper 1/2 cup diced onion 1/4 cup milk 1/2 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce 1 dash hot pepper sauce (optional) black pepper to taste Directions 1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Grease a 9x9-inch baking dish. 2. In a large bowl, stir together arctic char, crackers, egg, bell pepper, and onion. Mix in milk, Worcestershire sauce, and hot pepper. Season with black pepper. Mix well with your hands, and spread into baking dish. 3. Bake in a preheated oven until the top is golden brown and a toothpick inserted into the center comes out clean, about 45 minutes. Cut into squares to serve. Sieonas Painitsiak (My Mothers Labrador Inuit Bannock) -Holly Jarrett 2 ½ cups vegetable oil 6 cups flour 6 tblsp baking powder 4 tblsp salt 3 cups lukewarm water (more or less to desired consistency) In a large mixing bowl, mix flour, baking powder and salt. Form a well (hole) in the middle of the flour mixture and add lukewarm water and start mixing from the sides slowly integrating the flour and more water to make a pasty flour center, much like the consistency of pancakes until there is only about ¼ inch of flour mixture left on the sides and the bottom of the bowl. At this point, do not add anymore water, but start to fold the flour into the middle of the mix and when the mixture has no more dry spots and becomes consistently moist, fold in more flour until you have a consistent ball of dough that can be removed from the bowl without sticking to the sides. Add vegetable oil to a large frying pan and heat on medium on the stove top until “waves” form in the heated oil. Cut dough into small pieces, about the size of a two year olds closed fist, stretch them gently to form a flat circle and place gently in the oil. Turn the dough after the side in the oil has turned golden brown, usually about 7-10 minutes if your stove has the right heat for your oil. After both sides have been fried to a golden brown color, remove from oil and place on a paper towel lined platter or plate and serve warm with jam and Labrador tea outside in a tent. YUM! A great Variation for this recipe is to add some finely chopped Caribou meat and onions into the flour mix, mother calls these “ringals”, it’s a favorite in Northwest River and in the Upper Lake Melville area of Labrador. Stir-fried Arctic Char 1 fish baked 1 medium onion 1or 2 garlic cloves 1 red and green pepper 6 slices of celery 3 carrots 1 bag of shrimps (medium) 3 cups of boiled rice Fry onion, garlic, peppers, celery carrots together for about 15 mins on a medium then pour in the thawed shrimps and crumble in the baked fish fly again for about 10 mins. Put in the boiled rice (drained) in the roasting pan. Put the fried on top then baked it for about 20 mins at 350 Szechwan Caribou Burgers with Sweet and Hot Sauce Ingredients Burger Patties: 1 tablespoon Szechwan Seasoning or to taste (see note) 1 teaspoon finely grated fresh ginger 1 tablespoon soy sauce 2 tablespoons water 1/4 cup Jif® Extra Crunchy Peanut Butter 1 1/4 pounds ground caribou chunck Sweet and Hot Sauce: 1/2 cup Smucker's® Apricot Preserves 1/4 cup Smucker's® Red Plum Jam 2 teaspoons white vinegar 1/2 teaspoon finely grated fresh ginger Crushed red pepper flakes to taste CRISCO® Original No-Stick Cooking Spray 2 cups prepared fried rice, warmed Cilantro, chopped for garnish Directions 1. Combine Szechwan Seasoning, ginger, soy sauce, water and peanut butter in a medium bowl. Crumble ground beef over mixture. Gently combine the ingredients. Shape meat into eight (4-inch) patties. Refrigerate. 2. Combine apricot preserves, plum jam, vinegar, ginger and pepper flakes in small mixing bowl. 3. Coat unheated grill grate with no-stick cooking spray. Heat grill to medium-high (350 to 400 degrees F). Grill patties 3 to 5 minutes per side or until juices run clear. To serve, place 1/2 cup of warm fried rice onto each plate. Top with 2 burgers, garnish with sweet and hot sauce and cilantro. Winter Fruit Salad with Lemon Poppyseed Dressing Ingredients 1/2 cup white sugar 1/2 cup lemon juice 2 teaspoons diced onion 1 teaspoon Dijon-style prepared mustard 1/2 teaspoon salt 2/3 cup vegetable oil 1 tablespoon poppy seeds 1 head romaine lettuce, torn into bite-size pieces 4 ounces shredded Swiss cheese 1 cup cashews 1/4 cup dried cranberries 1 apple -peeled, cored and diced 1 pear -peeled, cored and diced 1 cup northern mixed berries Directions 1. In a blender or food processor, combine sugar, lemon juice, onion, mustard and salt. Process until well blended. With machine still running add oil in a slow steady stream until mixture is thick and smooth. Add poppy seeds and process just a few seconds more to mix. 2. In a large serving bowl combine the romaine lettuce, shredded Swiss cheese, cashews, dried cranberries, cubed apple, cubed pear and mixed northern berries. Toss to mix then pour dressing over salad just before serving and toss to coat.
  • Inuit Sports & Games
    Inuit love competition and sport as much as anyone. Sports around the world unite people in frenship and friendly competition. In the case of Inuit games primarily were born from two different needs. The first being a neccesity to be strong, fit and agile which improved hunting and survivability in northern regions. The stronger and more fit you are the better you able able to fight illness, traverse distances, maintain mental discliple etc. The other need for many of the games entertained those during long hours out on the land, especially during long periods of darkness. If a family was facing hard times due to food shortages etc., keeping spririts up helped to get through dificult times. Some of these games offered a necessary distraction. Below are some brief descriptions of Inuit games. To see some demonstrations of Inuit games view our video podcast from the podcast menu or click here. Kneel Jump The player must jump up from a kneeling position and spring themselves forward to jump as far as they can. The winner travels the farthest distance forward. Knuckle Hop A test of pain and endurance this event can be performed as a race among several players or a test of distance. The player(s) starts out in a push up position except instead of being on the flat palms of the hand players must hop forward on their knuckles. Alaskan High Kick The player places one hand on the ground to support the player and then with one foot attempts to kick a target hanging over them. To make this more difficult the other part of this game involves the player holding their their non kicking foot and not let go while they perform the jump. One Foot High Kick One of the most difficult and visually impressive events, the one foot high is accomplished by sweeping arms from behind to front, jumping from two feet as hih as possible while kicking a hanging target then coming down to a controlled landing on the kicking foot. Two Foot High Kick Basically it is the same concept as the one foot high kick only the taget is kicked with two feet and the player must land on two feet. Back Push Two players sit on the floor back to back, knees bent and players reach around behind them selves and interlock their arms. Then then begin to push the other player as far as possible and push the other player out of a designated area. Musox Push or Mushox Fight This game resembles two Muskox fighting for supremacy. Player take up position on their hands and knees facing each other. The players each place their heads under their opponents under arm and try to push their oponent out of a certain area. It is also one of the rules that each player keep their hands on the floor. Leg Wrestle Two players lie on their backs on the floor, side by side yet in opposed directions. The players hook arms at the elbow. After counting to three the players raise their inside legs and hook each other at the knee. The players must keep their other leg on the ground at all times, fully extended. The object of the game is use the strength of the hooked leg to pull their opponent off their back. Other Sports and Games Inuit of today do not just play traditional Inuit games, like any other place in Canada kids and adults love to take place in a variety of sports but the leading sport in many communities is hockey. Whether in the street or local arenas. That's not to say other sports are passed up, soccer, baseball etc. all have found their preferred players.
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